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Abandonment or cargo

Abandonment or cargo in the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser Based on the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser , by W.S.M. Knight, Barrister –at – Law. Abandonment of cargo or ship is a term used in marine In the case of constructive loss of the subject of the insurance—i.e. [...]

Categories: A, Maritime Law, and su1. Tags: AB.



Abduction of women

Abduction of women in the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser Based on the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser , by W.S.M. Knight, Barrister –at – Law. Abduction of women.—By an old statute, three years' imprisonment is the punishment of any man who carries away a nun from [...]

Categories: A, Criminal law, and su1. Tags: AB.



Abuse of A Dominant Position

Definition of Abuse of A Dominant Position In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Abuse of A Dominant Position : Unlawful activities by large businesses, i.e. usually those having a market share of at least 40% in at least one EU state. Examples of such [...]

Categories: A and su1. Tags: AB and Short Read.



Acas

Definition of Acas In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Acas : Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service: a statutory body that was established under the Employment Protection Act 1975; the composition and functions of ACAS are now governed by Parts IV [...]

Categories: A and su1. Tags: AC.



Accident

Accident in the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser Based on the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser , by W.S.M. Knight, Barrister –at – Law. Accident is, in law, a most elusive term. And yet actions for damages for personal injuries, and injuries to property through accident, are [...]

Categories: A, Civil Law, and su1. Tags: AC and Legal Practice Terms.



Accident insurance 2

Accident insurance 2 in the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser Based on the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser , by W.S.M. Knight, Barrister –at – Law. What Accidents are within the these are clearly defined in the policy. Now, as to some particular points hereon. (a) The injury [...]

Categories: A, Commercial Law, and su1. Tags: AC.



Accommodation

Accommodation in the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser Based on the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser , by W.S.M. Knight, Barrister –at – Law. Suing upon a contract, the plaintiff has, except in the case of contracts under seal, to prove a consideration therefore. Bills of [...]

Categories: A, Procedure Law, and su1. Tags: AC.



Accord and satisfaction

Accord and satisfaction in the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser Based on the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser , by W.S.M. Knight, Barrister –at – Law. Accord and Satisfaction is a satisfaction agreed upon between the party having a claim, and the party from whom the claim is [...]

Categories: A, Civil Law, and su1. Tags: AC.



Account stated

Account stated in the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser Based on the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser , by W.S.M. Knight, Barrister –at – Law. An account stated is an admission by one in an account with another, that a balance is due from him to the other. Such an admission is [...]

Categories: A, Commercial Law, and su1. Tags: AC.



Acquiescence

Acquiescence in the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser Based on the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser , by W.S.M. Knight, Barrister –at – Law. Acquiescence is a form of estoppel. The term must have attached to it a very different signification, according to whether the [...]

Categories: A, Civil Law, and su1. Tags: AC.



Acquittal

Acquittal in the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser Based on the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser , by W.S.M. Knight, Barrister –at – Law. Acquittal - In the case of a verdict of not guilty; or of a successful plea of pardon; or of a successful plea of autrefois convict or [...]

Categories: A, Criminal law, and su1. Tags: AC, Legal Practice Terms, and Scotland .



Act of bankruptcy

Act of bankruptcy in the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser Based on the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser , by W.S.M. Knight, Barrister –at – Law. A person becomes a bankrupt only after petition to the Court. The petition may be presented by the debtor himself or by the [...]

Categories: A, Bankruptcy, and su1. Tags: AC.



Act of Parliament

Act of Parliament in the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser Based on the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser , by W.S.M. Knight, Barrister –at – Law. Act of parliament is the term applied to an act, wherein the three constituent parts of the sovereign power in this realm, king, [...]

Categories: A, Constitutional Law, Political Science, and su1. Tags: AC, Featured, Legislation, and Parliament.



Adjournment

Definition of Adjournment In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Adjournment :(in court procedure) The postponement or suspension of the hearing of a case until a future date. The hearing may be adjourned to a fixed date or sine die (without day), i.e. for [...]

Categories: A and su1. Tags: AD, Featured, Parliament, and Scotland.



Administration

Definition of Administration In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Administration : 1. The collection of assets, payment of debts, and distribution to the beneficiaries of property in the estate of a deceased person See also grant of representation 2. The [...]

Categories: A, Business Law, and su1. Tags: AD, Administration, Company Reconstructions, Estate Law, Featured, and Political Economy.



Administration Order

Definition of Administration Order In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Administration Order : 1. An order made in a county court for the administration of the estate of a judgment debtor. The order normally requires the debtor to pay his debts by [...]

Categories: A and su1. Tags: AD and Administration.



Administrative Letter

Definition of Administrative Letter In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Administrative Letter : (comfort letter, administrative letter) A letter sent by the Competition Directorate of the European Commission following a notification for exemption or [...]

Categories: A and su1. Tags: AD, Administrative, and Short Read.



Admissibility of Records

Definition of Admissibility of Records In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Admissibility of Records : In civil cases documents containing information (records) are admissible as evidence of the facts stated in them. Before the introduction of the Civil [...]

Categories: A and su1. Tags: AD and Short Read.



Agency

Definition of Agency In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Agency : 1. The relationship between an *agent and his principal. 2. The business carried on by an agent. The Agency in the History Labour struggled to find an advertisement agency that would [...]

Categories: A and su1. Tags: AG and British History.



Agent

Definition of Agent In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Agent : 1. A person appointed by another (the principal) to act on his behalf, often to negotiate a contract between the principal and a third party. If an agent discloses his principal's name (or [...]

Categories: A, Business Law, and su1. Tags: AG and Partner Rights.



Agm

Definition of Agm In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Agm : (annual general meeting, AGM) A meeting of company members required by the Companies Act 1985 to be held each calendar year. Not more than 15 months should elapse between meetings, and 21 [...]

Categories: A and su1. Tags: AG and Short Read.



Alien

Definition of Alien In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Alien : A person who, under the law of a particular state, is not a citizen of that state. Aliens are usually classified as resident aliens (domiciled in the host country) or transient aliens [...]

Categories: A and su1. Tags: AL.



Ancillary Credit Business

Definition of Ancillary Credit Business In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Ancillary Credit Business : A business involved in credit brokerage, debt adjusting, debt counselling, debt collecting, or the operation of a credit-reference agency. Credit [...]

Categories: A and su1. Tags: AN.



Anglo Saxon Court System

This issue under the Ruling of the Anglo Saxons Anglo Saxon Ecclesiastical Courts and Medieval Law Anglo Saxon Ecclesiastical Courts and Legal History Legal Materials (Compiled by the University of South Caroline Gould School of Law) Clark, George T., ed. Cartae Et Alia Munimenta Quae Ad [...]

Categories: A and su1. Tags: AN, Anglo Saxon, Ecclesiastical Courts, Legal history, Long Read, Medieval Case Law, Medieval Courts, Medieval Law, Medieval Legal Documents, Medieval Legal Materials, and Non Royal Courts.



Anglo-Saxon Law

History of Anglo-Saxon Criminal Law The stage which the development of criminal law had reached in England by the reign of Edward the Confessor is thus described by Pollock and Maitland (Hist. Eng. Law, ii. 447): “On the eve of the Norman Conquest what we may call Anglo-Saxon law. the [...]

Categories: Criminal law and su1. Tags: British History and Long Read.



Articled Clerk

Meaning of Articled Clerk The following is an old definition of Articled Clerk [1]: In England a person bound by indenture to a solicitor, that he may acquire the knowledge pertaining to the business of a solicitor. Resources Notes and References Concept of Articled Clerk provided by the [...]

Categories: A and su1. Tags: AR and Short Read.



Assets

Definition of Assets In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Assets : Physical property and/or rights that have a monetary value and are capable of being those of a *juristic person or a natural person (i.e. a human being). They can comprise real assets (real [...]

Categories: A, Business Law, and su1. Tags: AS and Partnership Dissolution.



Assignment

Definition of Assignment In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Assignment : 1. The transfer of a *chose in action by one person (the assignor) to another (the assignee). By the rules of the common law, this was not permissible. If, for example, A was owed a [...]

Categories: A, Business Law, Civil Law, Commercial Law, Contract Formation , Criminal law, Intellectual Property, Legislation, su1, and Y. Tags: AS, Copyright, Intellectual Property, Intellectual Property Law, Legal Practice Terms, and Partner Relations.



Asylums

History of the Asylums and the County Council powers Lunatics Part of the business transferred from quarter sessions to the council was that which related to pauper lunatics, but the whole subject of lunacy was consolidated by an act of the year 1890, which again has been amended by a later [...]

Categories: Administrative Law and su1. Tags: Local Government.



Bank of England

The Bank of England was founded in 1694 (The clearest account of its early days is found in Thorold Rogers' History of the First Nine Years of the Bank of England). The Bank of England has, from the date of its establishment, possessed a practical, though perhaps not an absolutely legal, [...]

Categories: Finance Law and su1.



Bankruptcy

Definition of Bankruptcy In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Bankruptcy : The state of a person who has been adjudged by a court to be insolvent (Compare winding-up). The court orders the compulsory administration of a bankrupt's affairs so that his [...]

Categories: B, Bankruptcy, Business Law, Estate Planning, Finance Law, and su1. Tags: BA, Banking, Banking Law, Bankruptcy, Finance, Financial Law, Insolvencies, Insolvency Law, Long Read, and Partnership Dissolution.



Bankruptcy notice

Bankruptcy notice in the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser Based on the Business Encyclopaedia and Legal Adviser , by W.S.M. Knight, Barrister –at – Law. This process, by way of Bankruptcy Notice, is the most common foundation of bankruptcy proceedings. The following are some points for [...]

Categories: B, Commercial Law, and su1. Tags: BA.



Bankruptcy Procedure

History Summary of procedure For the convenience of readers who may require more detailed information, the accompanying summary of some of the more important provisions of the law relating to bankruptcy procedure is submitted. It must be borne in mind, however, that the subject is in [...]

Categories: Bankruptcy, Business Law, Estate Planning, Finance Law, Procedures, and su1. Tags: Banking, Banking Law, Bankruptcy, Finance, Financial Law, Insolvencies, Insolvency Law, and Procedure Law.



Barrister

Definition of Barrister A lawyer who is entitled to represent clients in all of the courts. In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Barrister : A legal practitioner admitted to plead at the Bar. A barrister must be a member of one of the four Inns of [...]

Categories: B, Civil Law, Commercial Law, Legal Practice, and su1. Tags: BA, Featured, Legal Practice Terms, Long Read, and North Ireland.



Bill of Costs

Definition of Bill of Costs In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Bill of Costs : An account of *costs prepared by a solicitor in respect of legal services he has rendered his client. In general a solicitor may be required to furnish his client with a bill [...]

Categories: B and su1. Tags: BI and Bills.



Body-Snatching

Body-Snatching History Body-Snatching, the secret disinterring of dead bodies in churchyards in order to sell them for the purpose of dissection. Those who practised body-snatching were frequently called resurrectionists or resurrection-men. Previous to the passing of the Anatomy Act 1832 [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized.



Breach of Contract

Definition of Breach of Contract In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Breach of Contract : An actual failure by a party to a contract to perform his obligations under that contract or an indication of his intention not to do so. An indication that a [...]

Categories: ADR, B, Business Law, Civil Law, Commercial Law, Contract Formation , and su1. Tags: Book Contract Law, BR, Breaches, Contract Law, Dispute Resolution, Financial Law, Legal Practice Terms, Long Read, Mortgages, and Share Capital.



Bribery

Definition of Bribery And Corruption In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Bribery And Corruption : Offences relating to the improper influencing of people in certain positions of trust. The offences commonly grouped under this expression are now statutory. [...]

Categories: B and su1. Tags: BR, Crimes, and Long Read.



Business Liability

Definition of Business Liability In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Business Liability : Liability (contractual or tortious) for a breach of obligations or duties arising in the course of a business (which can include the activities of a government [...]

Categories: B and su1. Tags: BU.



Business Support

Resources See Also Further Reading Business Support in the Encyclopedia of Britain Business Support in the Osborn's Concise Law Dictionary Business Support in the Halsbury's Laws of England Business Support in the Stroud's Judicial Dictionary of Words and Phrases Business Support [...]

Categories: B and su1. Tags: BU and Short Read.



Business Tenancy

Definition of Business Tenancy In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Business Tenancy : A *tenancy of premises that are occupied for the purposes of a trade, profession, or employment. Business tenants have special statutory protection. If the landlord [...]

Categories: B and su1. Tags: BU and Real Estate.



Business Trusts

Most Popular Entries related to Business Trusts Wills Trusts and Probate (in the United Kingdom) Information Wills Probate (in the United Kingdom) Legal Questions Trusts (in the United Kingdom) Legal Questions Wills (in the United Kingdom) Legal Advice Probate (in the United Kingdom) [...]

Categories: B and su1. Tags: BU, Estate Law, and Most Popular.



Capital Account

Brief Introduction to Capital Account in Partnership Law The partners in a partnership or members of an LLP have both Capital and Current Accounts. Other Short note (s) in relation wth Capital Account here: The Capital Account represents their share of the equity of the business and is made up [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CA, Partnership, and Short Read.



Capital Allowance

Definition of Capital Allowance In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Capital Allowance : A tax allowance for businesses on capital expenditure on particular items. These include *machinery and plant, industrial buildings, agricultural buildings, mines and [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CA and Short Read.



Cause of Action

Definition of Cause of Action In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Cause of Action : The facts that entitle a person to sue. The cause of action may be a wrongful act, such as *trespass; or the harm resulting from a wrongful act, as in the tort of [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CA.



Central Office

Definition of Central Office In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Central Office : The administrative organization of the *Supreme Court of Judicature in London, from which claim forms are issued. Its business is superintended by the Queen's Bench [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CE, Courts, Short Read, and Tribunals.



Certificates

Definition of Charge Certificate In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Charge Certificate : A certificate issued by the Land Registry to a legal mortgagee of registered land as evidence of his title. It will only be issued if the *land certificate is [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CH, Charges, Contracts, Featured, and Long Read.



Chamber

Chamber Meaning, as used in the UK Parliament The Chamber is where the main business of the day takes place in each House. It is where all members meet to hear important announcements and to take decisions as a whole House.

Categories: su1.



Chancery

History Chancery, in English law, the court of the lord chancellor of England, consolidated in 1873 along with the other superior courts in the Supreme Court of Judicature. Its origin is noticed under the head of Chancellor. It has been customary to say that the court of chancery consists [...]

Categories: C, Civil Law, Commercial Law, Legislation, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: CH and Long Read.



Changing A Will

Most Popular Entries related to Changing a Will Types of Trusts (in the United Kingdom) Living Trusts (in the United Kingdom) Revocable Trusts (in the United Kingdom) Business Trusts (in the United Kingdom) Irrevocable Trust (in the United Kingdom) Probate (in the United Kingdom) [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CH, Estate Law, and Most Popular.



Chattel

Definition of Chattel In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Chattel : Any property other than freehold land (Compare real property). Leasehold interests in land are called chattels real, because they bear characteristics of both real and personal property. [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CH and Short Read.



Client

Definition of Client In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Client : A person who employs a solicitor to carry out legal business on behalf of himself or someone else. The relationship between a solicitor and his client is a *fiduciary one and any other [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CL and Short Read.



Club

Definition of Club In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Club : An association regulated by rules that bind its members according to the law of contract. Club property is either vested in trustees for the members (members' club) or owned by a proprietor [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CL, Club Law, and Short Read.



Comfort Letter

Definition of Comfort Letter In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Comfort Letter : (comfort letter, administrative letter) A letter sent by the Competition Directorate of the European Commission following a notification for exemption or *negative clearance [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CO and Short Read.



Consideration

Definition of Consideration In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Consideration : An act, forbearance, or promise by one party to a contract that constitutes the price for which he buys the promise of the other. Consideration is essential to the validity of [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: Book Contract Law, CO, Contracts, Legal Practice Terms, and Long Read.



Constitutional Law Milestone Cases

A & Ors v Secretary of State for the Home Department (BAILII: [2005] UKHL 71 ) [2005] 3 WLR 1249  A v Secretary of State for the Home Department (BAILII: [2004] UKHL 56 ) [2005] 2 AC 68, [2005] 2 WLR 87  Abbassy v Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis (BAILII: [...]

Categories: C, Cases, and su1. Tags: CO, Courts, and Long Read.



Consumer Protection

Definition of Consumer Protection In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Consumer Protection : The protection, especially by legal means, of consumers (those who contract otherwise than in the course of a business to obtain goods or services from those who [...]

Categories: Business Law, C, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: CO, Consumer Law, Consumers, Cyber Law, and Internet Law.



Contentious Business

Definition of Contentious Business In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Contentious Business : Business of a solicitor when there is a contest between the parties involved, especially litigation. It is important in relation to *costs, since different rules [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CO and Short Read.



Conveyances

Meaning of Conveyances Under the Statute of Uses The following is an old definition of Conveyances Under the Statute of Uses [1]: Such as have force and operation by virtue of that statute0 They are: covenant to stand seized to uses, bargain and sale, lease and release, deed to lead or declare [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CO.



Copyright

Definition of Copyright In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Copyright : The exclusive right to reproduce or authorize others to reproduce artistic, dramatic, literary, or musical works. It is conferred by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, which [...]

Categories: Business Law, C, Civil Law, Commercial Law, Criminal law, Intellectual Property, Legislation, su1, and Y. Tags: CO, Copyright, Crown, Cyber Law, Cybersecurity, Data Protection, Featured, Intellectual Property, and Intellectual Property Law.



Corn Laws

In England, legislation on corn was early applied both to home and foreign trade in this essential produce. Roads were so bad, and the chain of home trade so feeble, that there was often scarcity of grain in one part, and plenty in another part of the same kingdom. Export by sea or river to [...]

Categories: Administrative Law and su1. Tags: Long Read.



Corrupt

Definition of Corrupt And Illegal Practices In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Corrupt And Illegal Practices : Offences defined by the Representation of the People Act 1983 in connection with conduct at parliamentary or local elections. Corrupt practices, [...]

Categories: C, Criminal law, and su1. Tags: CO.



Costs

Definition of Costs In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Costs : Sums payable for legal services. A distinction is drawn between contentious and noncontentious costs (broadly, the distinction between costs relating to litigious and nonlitigious [...]

Categories: C, Civil Law, Commercial Law, Criminal law, Legislation, Procedure Law, su1, and Y. Tags: CO, Costs, Intellectual Property Law, and Long Read.



County

Definition of County In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of County : A first-tier *local government area in England (outside Greater London) or Wales. The Local Government Act 1972 created 45 counties for England and 8 for Wales, dividing the former into [...]

Categories: Administrative Law, C, Civil Law, Commercial Law, Legislation, and su1. Tags: British History, CO, Featured, and Long Read.



County Court

County Cour Definition of County Court County courts deal with civil cases and do not have jurisdiction to hear criminal cases. In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of County Court : Any of the civil courts forming a system covering all of England and [...]

Categories: C, Civil Law, Commercial Law, Criminal law, Legislation, Northern Ireland, and su1. Tags: Civil Jurisdiction, CO, Courts, Featured, Financial Law, Legal Practice Terms, Long Read, Mortgages, North Ireland, and Wales.



Court Baron

Court Baron, an English manorial court dating from the middle ages and still in existence. It was laid down by Coke that a manor had two courts, “the first by the common law, and is called a court baron,” the freeholders (“barons”) being its suitors; the other a customary court for the [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: British History and Courts.



Court Judges As Arbitrators

The Technology and Construction Court judge as arbitrator in General Section 93(1) of the Arbitration Act 1996 ("the Arbitration Act 1996”) provides that a judge of the Technology and Construction Court (previously an Official Referee) may "if in all the circumstances he thinks fit, accept [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CO.



Court of Arches

Definition of Court of Arches In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Court of Arches : The ecclesiastical court of appeal from the consistory court (See ecclesiastical courts), which has the jurisdiction of the former provincial Court of Archbishop of [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CO, Courts, Ecclesiastical Law, and Religious.



Court of King’s Bench

History Court of King’s Bench, in England, one of the superior courts of common law. This court, the most ancient of English courts—in its correct legal title, “the court of the king before the king himself,” coram ipso rege—is far older than parliament itself, for it can be traced back [...]

Categories: Procedure Law and su1.



Courtenay

Courtenay, , the name of a famous English family. French genealogists head the pedigree of this family with one Athon or Athos, who is said to have fortified Courtenay in Gâtinois about the year 1010. His son Josselin had, with other issue, Miles, lord of Courtenay, founder of the Cistercian [...]

Categories: Biography and su1. Tags: British History and Long Read.



Courts

Introduction to Courts Courts in the United Kingdom, judicial institutions charged with resolving disputes in law, either between citizens, or between citizens and government organs. There are three legal systems in the United Kingdom: one for England and Wales, one for Scotland, and one [...]

Categories: C, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and su1. Tags: CO, Courts, and Long Read.



Criminal Law

General Principles Crime and sentence There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia. The definition of a crime There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia. The classification of offences There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia. The [...]

Categories: C, Criminal law, and su1. Tags: CR, Legal Practice Terms, and Long Read.



Current Account

Brief Introduction to Current Account in Partnership Law The partners in a partnership or members of an LLP have both Capital and Current Accounts. Other Short note (s) in relation wth Current Account here: The Current Account represents their share of profits and losses and profits can be [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CU, Partnership, and Short Read.



Custom

Meaning of Custom The following is an old definition of Custom [1]: That length of usage which has become law; a usage which has acquired the force of law. Often used synonymously with usage. A law established by long usage. A universal custom becomes common law.5 The law or rule which is not [...]

Categories: C and su1. Tags: CU.



Damages

Definition of Damages The award by court or prior mutual agreement for a breach of contract. In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Damages : A sum of money awarded by a court as compensation for a tort or a breach of contract. Damages are usually a [...]

Categories: Criminal law, D, and su1. Tags: Clinical Negligence, Criminal Law, DA, Damages, Dangerous, Intellectual Property Law, Legal Practice Terms, Libel and Slander, Long Read, Most Popular, Procedural Law, Professional Negligence, Real Estate, and Remedies.



Day

In law, a day may be either a dies naturalis or natural day, or a dies artificialis or artificial day. A natural day includes all the twenty-four hours from midnight to midnight. Fractions of the day are disregarded to avoid dispute, though sometimes the law will consider fractions, as where [...]

Categories: D and su1. Tags: DA.



Days of Grace

Definition of Days of Grace In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Days of Grace : The three days that were added to the time of payment fixed by a *bill of exchange not payable on demand before the Banking and Financial Dealings Act 1971 came into force. A [...]

Categories: D and su1. Tags: DA.



Death Certification

Death Certification and Crematory: History The crematory council turned their attention to the need for a national system of death certification, to be enforced by law as an essential and much-needed reform in connexion with cremation. On the 6th of January 1893 the duke Death certification. [...]

Categories: Administrative Law and su1. Tags: Health Care.



Debenture Stock

History One of the many advantages incident to incorporation under the English Companies Acts is found in the facilities which such incorporation affords a trading concern for borrowing on debentures or debenture stock. More than five hundred millions of money are now invested in these forms [...]

Categories: Business Law, D, and su1. Tags: Borrowing, Charges, and DE.



Deed of Arrangement

Definition of Deed of Arrangement In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Deed of Arrangement : A written agreement between a debtor and his creditors, when no *bankruptcy order has been made, arranging the debtor's affairs either for the benefit of the [...]

Categories: D and su1. Tags: DE and Deeds.



Development

Definition of Development In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Development : (in *town and country planning) Generally, the carrying out of any building or other operation affecting land and the making of any material change in the use of any buildings or [...]

Categories: D and su1. Tags: DE, Development, and Short Read.



Disclosure of Information

Definition of Disclosure of Information In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Disclosure of Information : 1. (in employment law) The communication by an employer to employees and their trade-union representatives of information relevant to *collective [...]

Categories: D and su1. Tags: DI.



Diseases

History Infectious diseases The Public Health Acts contain important provisions relating to infectious disease. Any person who knows he is suffering from an infectious disease must not carry on any trade or business unless he can do so without risk of spreading the disease. Local [...]

Categories: Administrative Law, D, and su1. Tags: DI, Featured, and Local Government.



Dismissal

Definition of Dismissal In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Dismissal : (in employment law) The termination of an employee's contract of employment by the employer. An employer usually dismisses the employee by giving him the required period of [...]

Categories: D and su1. Tags: DI and Legal Practice Terms.



Dispute Resolution

Dispute Resolution in Contract Formation It is often advisable to include this term in any contract. In Pinsent Mason's words:The procedure to be followed if the parties have a dispute should be included. For example, if there is an option for arbitration or mediation where the issue [...]

Categories: ADR, Contract Formation , D, and su1. Tags: Book Contract Law, Conciliation, DI, Dispute Resolution, Long Read, and Mediation.



Dissolution

Definition of Dissolution In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Dissolution : 1. The legal termination of a marriage; for example, by a decree of divorce, nullity, or presumption of death. 2. The dissolving of a *registered company. This can be achieved by [...]

Categories: Business Law, D, and su1. Tags: DI, Legal Practice Terms, Legislative Law, Partnership, and Partnership Dissolution.



Distress

Definition of Distress In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Distress : The seizure of goods as security for the performance of an obligation. The two principal situations covered by the remedy of distress are: between landlord and tenant when the [...]

Categories: D and su1. Tags: DI and Featured.



Dwelling

Dwelling or Dwelling-House Dwelling or Dwelling-House Case Law A selected English Real Property Law Case in relation with dwelling or dwelling-house may be: Phillips v Francis Year of the above case: 2010 Inner room in the Building (Scotland) Act 2003 Meaning of Inner room in the [...]

Categories: D and su1. Tags: Buildings, DW, and Real Estate.



E-petitions

Introduction In the summer of 2011, the UK Government introduced a new website for registering e-petitions. Issues raised in e-petitions can reach the Backbench Business Committee of the Parliament. E-petitions are an easy, personal way for you to influence government and Parliament in the [...]

Categories: E, Legislation, and su1. Tags: EP, Featured, and Politics.



Edmund Burke Work

In 1756 he made his first mark by a satire upon Bolingbroke entitled A Vindication of Natural Society. It purported to be a posthumous work from the pen of Bolingbroke, and to present a view of the miseries and evils arising to mankind from every species of artificial society. The imitation [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Long Read.



Edward Baines

Edward Baines (1774-1848), English newspaper-proprietor and politician, was born in 1774 at Walton-le-Dale, near Preston, Lancashire. He was educated at the grammar schools of Hawkshead and Preston, and at the age of sixteen was apprenticed to a printer in the latter town. After remaining [...]

Categories: Biography and su1. Tags: British History.



English Poor Laws

History of Welfare: The English Poor Laws Introduction to English Poor Laws The English Poor Laws, a system set up by the government of England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, attempted to establish a clear public responsibility for care of the poor. Under these laws, government [...]

Categories: Administrative Law, E, and su1. Tags: EN and Welfare.



English Trusts Law

History of Trust Deeds When the amount borrowed by a company is large, the company commonly executes a trust deed by way of further security. The object of such a trust deed is twofold: it conveys specific property to the trustees of the deed by way of legal mortgage (the charge [...]

Categories: Business Law, E, and su1. Tags: EN, Estate Law, and Trusts.



Enterprise Investment Scheme

Definition of Enterprise Investment Scheme In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Enterprise Investment Scheme : (EIS) A scheme to encourage investment in unquoted companies; it replaced the similar Business Expansion Scheme on 1 January 1994. It gives income [...]

Categories: E and su1. Tags: EN and Short Read.



Entry

Meaning of Entry The following is an old definition of Entry [1]: As relates to Property. The act of actually going upon land, or into a building. At common law, an assertion of title by going upoil the land; or, if that was hazardous, by making continual claim. Taking possession of lands by [...]

Categories: E and su1. Tags: EN.



Equality Act 2010

The Equality Act 2010 and disability From the book Cornerstone on Anti-Social Behaviour: the new law (Bloomsbury Professional), by Cornerstone Chambers: The Equality Act 2010 ('EA 2010') came into force on 1 October 2010 in England, Wales and Scotland, consolidating and in some respects [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Long Read.



Estate Agent

Definition of Estate Agent In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Estate Agent : A person who introduces prospective buyers and sellers of property to each other. Such a person may be a member of a professional body but must, in any event, under the Estate [...]

Categories: E and su1. Tags: ES and Short Read.



European Union

Resources Further Reading BEALE, H./HOWELLS, G., “EC Harmonisation of Consumer Sales Law – A missed opportunity?”, Journal of Contract Law, 1997, n.º 12, pp. 21 y ss. BIRD, T. C., “Directive 99/44/EC on Certain Aspects of the Sale of Consumer Goods and Associated Guarantees: Its [...]

Categories: E, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: EU and European Law.



Eviction

Definition of Eviction In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Eviction : The removal of a tenant or any other occupier from occupatio Under the Protection from Eviction Act 1977 the eviction of a *residential occupier, other than by proceedings in the court, [...]

Categories: E and su1. Tags: EV.



Exchequer Procedural Documents

The Rolls Series, which while not an exclusively legal source, contains much legal material (Source: the University of South Caroline Gould School of Law) These were compiled primarily for the use and direction of officials in the Exchequer. Fitzneale, Richard, and Charles Johnson, ed. Dialogus [...]

Categories: E and su1. Tags: Administrative Records, EX, Full Text Records, Legal history, Medieval Administrative Law, Medieval Law, Medieval Legal Documents, Medieval Legal Materials, Records of State, and Rolls Series.



Exemption Clause

Definition of Exemption Clause In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Exemption Clause : A term in a contract purporting to exclude or restrict the liability of one of the parties in specified circumstances. The courts do not regard exemption clauses with [...]

Categories: E and su1. Tags: EX and Legal Practice Terms.



Extraordinary General Meeting

Definition of Extraordinary General Meeting In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Extraordinary General Meeting : Any meeting of company members other than the *annual general meeting (See also general meeting). Except when the meeting is for the passing of [...]

Categories: E and su1. Tags: EX and Short Read.



False Trade Description

Definition of False Trade Description In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of False Trade Description : A description of goods made in the course of a business that is false in respect of certain facts (See trade description). Under the Trade Descriptions Acts [...]

Categories: F and su1. Tags: FA, False, and Short Read.



Fitness for Purpose

Definition of Fitness For Purpose In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Fitness For Purpose : A standard that must be met by one who sells goods in the course of a business. When the buyer makes known to the seller any particular purpose for which the goods [...]

Categories: F and su1. Tags: FI and Short Read.



Foreign Judgments

Definition of Foreign Judgments In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Foreign Judgments : The *judgment of a foreign court may be enforced in England provided that the foreign court was competent and that the judgment is for a definite sum and is final and [...]

Categories: F and su1. Tags: FO and Foreign Law.



Franchise

Definition of Franchise In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Franchise : 1. (in constitutional law) A special right conferred by the Crown on a subject. Also known as a liberty, it is exemplified by the right to hold a market or fair or to run a ferry. 2. [...]

Categories: F and su1. Tags: FR.



Game Laws

From the Encyclopedia Britannica (1911): Game Laws: This title in English law is applied to the statutes which regulate the right to pursue and take or kill certain kinds of wild animals (see above). The existence of these statutes is due to the rules of the common law as to the nature [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Long Read and Property.



George Jessel

Life and Work From the book Studies in Contemporary Biography, by James Bryce: There is hardly any walk of English life in which brilliant abilities win so little fame for their possessor among the public at large as that of practice at the Chancery bar. A leading ecclesiastic, or [...]

Categories: Biography and su1. Tags: Judges and Long Read.



George Joachim Goschen

Life and Work 1st Viscount George Joachim Gosche n(1831-1907), British statesman, son of William Henry Göschen, a London merchant of German extraction, was born in London on the 10th of August 1831. He was educated at Rugby under Dr Tait, and at Oriel College, Oxford, where he took a [...]

Categories: Biography and su1. Tags: History.



Good Faith

Definition of Good Faith In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Good Faith : Honesty. An act carried out in good faith is one carried out honestly. Good faith is implied by law into certain contracts, such as those relating to commercial agency. See also [...]

Categories: G and su1. Tags: Book Contract Law and GO.



Guarantee Payment

Definition of Guarantee Payment In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Guarantee Payment : Under the Employment Rights Act 1996, the sum that an employer must pay to an employee for whom he is unable to provide work during the whole of any working day or [...]

Categories: G and su1. Tags: GU.



Hamesucken

Scottish Law: Hamesucken in the Past The crime of hamesucken consists in "the felonious seeking and invasion of a person in his dwelling house." 1 Hume, 312; Burnett, 86; Alison's Princ. of the Cr. Law of Scotl. 199. Developments The mere breaking into a house, without personal violence, does [...]

Categories: H and su1. Tags: HA.



Hanaper

Meaning of Hanaper The following is an old definition of Hanaper [1]: A bag or basket, kept in offices of the court of chancery to receive dues paid for the seals of charters, patents, commissions, and writs; then, the exchequer of chancery. Writs issuing out of the ordinaiy court of chancery [...]

Categories: H and su1. Tags: HA.



Hand

Concept of Hand The following is an old definition of Hand [1], a term which has several meanings:1. As the member of the body with which a thing ia held, an instrument used, force or action originated or exerted, or a deed done, is in frequent use. See Arraign; Burn; Death; Mayhem. Compare [...]

Categories: H and su1. Tags: HA.



Hearsay Evidence

Definition of Hearsay Evidence In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Hearsay Evidence : Evidence of the statements of a person other than the witness who is testifying and statements in documents offered to prove the truth of what was asserted. In general, [...]

Categories: H and su1. Tags: HE.



Henry II

Henry II(1133-1189), king of England, son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, count of Anjou, by Matilda, daughter of Henry I., was born at Le Mans on the 25th of March 1133. He was brought to England during his mother’s conflict with Stephen (1142), and was placed under the charge of a tutor at [...]

Categories: Biography, C, and su1. Tags: British History, Canon Law, CI, and Long Read.



History of Working Time

History of Working Time (Hours of Labour) History of Working Time in the United Kingdom The 8-hour day was established in the mining of coal, stratified ironstone, shale and fireclay by the Coal Mines Regulation Act of 1908, and the amending Act of 1919 further reduced the daily hours of [...]

Categories: H, Labour law, and su1. Tags: HI, History of, and Legal history.



House

Boarding-House: Legal History Boarding-House, a private house in which the proprietor provides board and lodging for paying guests. The position of a guest in a boarding-house differs in English law, to some extent, on the one hand from that of a lodger in the ordinary sense of the term, and [...]

Categories: Administrative Law, Civil Law, Commercial Law, Criminal law, H, Legislation, and su1. Tags: Buildings, HO, and Real Estate.



Implied Terms

Implied Terms in Contract Formation Certain terms may be implied into contracts by law, or by usage or custom. The Sale of Goods Act and the Sale of Goods and Services Act contain terms -according to Pinsent Mason's literature about Implied Terms- which are implied into all contracts for the [...]

Categories: Contract Formation , I, and su1. Tags: IM.



Inhabitant

Meaning of Inhabitant The following is an old definition of Inhabitant [1]: Implies a more fixed and permanent abode than resident; frequently imports many privileges and duties to which a mere resident could not lay claim or be subject. One domiciled: one who has his domicil or fixed [...]

Categories: I and su1. Tags: IN.



Inn

Meaning of Inn The following is an old definition of Inn [1]: A house where the traveler is furnished with everything which he hath occasion for whilst upon his way. A public house of entertainment for all who choose to visit it. A house kept open publicly for the lodging and entertainment of [...]

Categories: I and su1. Tags: IN.



Intellectual Property Audit

Concept of Intellectual property audit in IP Law [rtbs name="intellectual-property-law"]Lambert defined intellectual property audit as follows: A systematic review of the intellectual assets owned or used by a business, their legal protection, the title by which they are held or licensed and [...]

Categories: Commercial Law, Criminal law, I, su1, and Y. Tags: IN, Intellectual Property Law, and Short Read.



Intellectual Property Office (“The IPO”)

Concept of Intellectual Property Office (“The IPO”) in IP Law [rtbs name="intellectual-property-law"]Lambert defined intellectual property office (“the ipo”) as follows: The operating name of the Patent Office, an executive agency of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. [...]

Categories: Commercial Law, Criminal law, I, su1, and Y. Tags: IN and Intellectual Property Law.



Interpretations

Interpretations in Contract Formation It is often advisable to include this term in any contract. In Pinsent Mason's words:Definitions and Interpretations - If there are any defined terms in the contract this section should provide specific and clear definitions. For example, a Business [...]

Categories: Contract Formation , I, and su1. Tags: IN and Short Read.



Itinerant Courts

(Source: the University of South Caroline Gould School of Law) During the later twelfth and thirteenth centuries, justices mainly from the central courts at Westminster, were sent to hold courts for all types of pleas in the counties of England. The counties were grouped into circuits, each of [...]

Categories: I and su1. Tags: IT, Itinerant Courts, Legal history, Medieval Case Law, Medieval Courts, Medieval Law, Medieval Legal Documents, Medieval Legal Materials, and Royal Courts.