Courts in United Kingdom

Introduction to Courts

Courts in the United Kingdom, judicial institutions charged with resolving disputes in law, either between citizens, or between citizens and government organs.

There are three legal systems in the United Kingdom: one for England and Wales, one for Scotland, and one for Northern Ireland. Because they have been ruled by the same Parliament for so long, the different systems have much in common. However, their different origins and circumstances, especially in Scotland, account for their own procedures and detailed law. Appeal can be made from all courts in the United Kingdom, except in Scottish criminal matters, to the House of Lords in London.

The present court system is an amalgamation over the centuries of three sorts of courts: ecclesiastical, common law, and courts of equity. Essentially, the present form began in 1873, with some structural alterations made in 1971.

In English common law, the courts are, in theory, the final bodies that give effect to legal state and legislative power. A statute only has effect by being recognized by the courts and the legal system generally. In fact, the courts have never refused to follow the legislature, although the question of whether a court would accept an absurdly unjust statute has never been tested. Indeed, some of the lower courts and tribunals exist only by virtue of statutes, and much of the activity of the higher courts is governed by statute and by regulations made under statute.” (1)

Law Courts

Law Courts is the “name commonly used for the Royal Courts of Justice. The imposing building in the Strand (by G.E. Street, 1824–81) opened in 1882. It was designed -in accordance to Bamber Gascoigne´ Encyclopedia of Britain about “Law Courts”– to bring under one roof all the civil actions being heard by the *High Court in London. Nowadays pressure on the *Old Bailey means that some criminal cases are heard in the Law Courts; and the Law Courts themselves have extended to premises other than the Strand.”

Concept of Court

The following is an old definition of Court [1]: 1. According to Cowel, the house where the king remains with his retinue; also, the place where justice is administered. These two meanings, in the beginning, were closely connected. For, in early history, when the king was actually the fountain and dispenser of justice, nothing could be more natural than that subjects who had complaints of ill-treatment to make should use the ex- pression ” the court,” in speaking of the journey to the place where the king was domiciled, and the application to him preferred, usually in the court of the palace, for interference and redress. Anciently, then, the ” court,” for judicial purposes, was the king and his attendants; later, those who sojourned or traveled with him, to whom he delegated authority to determine conti’oversies and to dispense justice. The earlier courts were merely assemblages, in the court-yard of the baron or of the king himself, of those whose duty it was to appear at stated times or upon summons. Traces of this constitution of courts remain in tribunals for the trial of impeachments, and in the control exercised by legislatures over the organization of courts of justice, as constituted in modern times. Indeed, parliament is still the ” High Court of Parliament,” and in Massachusetts the united legislative bodies are entitled the ” General Court.” A place where justice is judicially administered, The more effectually to accomplish the redress of private injuries, courts of justice are instituted to protect the weak from the insults of the strong, by expounding and enforcing those laws by which rights are defined and wrongs prohibited. As the executive power of the law is vested in the king, courts of justice, which are the medium by which he .administers that law, originate with this power of the crown. . . He is represented by his judges. In every court there must be: an actor, plaintiff, who complains of an injury; a reus, defendant, who is called upon to make satisfaction; and a judex, judicial power to examine the truth of the fact, determine the law arising thereon, and, for injury done, by its officers to apply the remedy. A tribunal established for the public administration of justice, and composed of one or more judges, who sit for that purpose at fixed times and places, attended by proper officers. An organized body, with defined powers, meeting at certain times and places for the hearing and decision of causes and other matters brought before it, and aided in this by its officers, viz., attorneys and counsel to pi’esent and manage the business, clerks to record and attest its acts and decisions, and ministerial officers to execute its commands and secure order in its proceedings. Proceedings at another time and place or in another manner than that specified by law, though in the personal presence and under the direction of a judge, are coram non judice, and void. The definition given by Coke (and Blackstone) lacks fullness: it is limited to the place of a court. There must also be the presence of the officers constituting the court, the judge or judges certainly, and probably the clerk authorized to record the action taken; time must be regarded, too, for the offtoers of a court must be present at the place and time appointed by law. To give existence to a court, then, its officers, and the time and place of holding it, must be such as are prescribed by law. . . ” Open court ” conveys the idea that the court must be in session, organized for the transaction of judicial business. It may mean public, free to all. A permanent organization for the administration of justice; not a special tribunal provided for bylaw, occasionally called into existence and ceasing to exist with particular exigencies. See further Tribunal

Alternative Meaning

The judge charged with deciding the law in a given case; as opposed to the jury, who are triers of the fact. The term “court” may mean the “judge” or “judges” of the court, or the judge and the jury, according to the connection, and the object of its use. See Judge; Judiciary. For the speedy, universal, and impartial administration of justice the law has appointed a variety of courts, some with a more limited, others with a more extensive; jurisdiction; some to determine in the first instance, others upon appeal and by way of review. Of these the most important are: Civil court. A court instituted for the enforcement of private rights and the redress of private wrongs; any court which administers civil law. Criminal court. Any tribunal for the redress of public wrongs – crimes and misdemeanors. Ecclesiastical court. Such judicatory as enforces law made by a religious body for its own government. See Church. Court of law, or coiirt of common law. Any court which administers justice according to the principles and forms of the common law. Court of chancery, or of equity. A court which proceeds wholly according to the principles of equity, g. v. Court of original jurisdiction. Such court as is to exercise jurisdiction over a matter in the first instance. Court of appellate jurisdiction. Is organized to review causes removed from another court or courts. Court of general jurisdiction. Takes cognizance of all causes, civil or criminal, of a particular nature. Court of limited or special jurisdiction. May have cognizance over a few matters only. Inferior court. A court subordinate to another; or, a court of limited jurisdiction. Superior court. A court with controlling authority over some other court or courts, and with certain original jurisdiction of its own. Supreme court. A court of the highest jurisdiction; also, a court higher than some other court or courts, but not necessarily of last resort. Inferior courts. All courts from which an appeal lies are ” inferior ” to the court to which their judgments may be carried – as are the circuit and district courts of the United States, but they are not, there-fore, ” inferior courts ” in the technical sense as applying to courts of a special and limited jurisdiction, which are created on such principles that their judgments, taken alone, are entirely disregarded, and the proceedings musts show their jurisdiction. See further Apparere, De non, etc. Superior courts. Courts in Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Massachusetts, and North Carolina, whose jurisdiction extends throughout the whole of a defined district or of the whole State. In a few other States, the title of a court or courts organized in a particular city or county, additional to the general system; as in one or more counties of Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Maryland, and Michigan. Supreme courts. The supreme courts of New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Vermont, the “supreme courts of appeal ” of Virginia and West Virginia, and the ” supreme judicial courts ” of Maine and Massachusetts, in addition to their appellate powers, exercise an additional jurisdiction, more or less general, in the issuing of the prerogative writs of mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto, etc. In New Jersey the supreme court is the highest court of law of original jurisdiction; and in New York a court, next to the court of appeals, with certain general original jurisdiction coupled with some appellate powers. In Connecticut the court of last resort is called the ” supreme court of errors.” In most, if not quite all, of the other States, the name supreme court, for a court possessing the general characteristics above described, is applied to the court of last resort. As to the Supreme Court of the United States, see page 2T8. Court of record. A court in which the acts and judicial proceedings are enrolled on parchment for a perpetual memorial and testimony. . . All such are the king’s courts; no other has authority to fine and imprison: so that the erection of a new jurisdiction with this power makes it instantly a court of record. Court not of record. Originally, the court of a private man, whom the law would not intrust with discretionary power over the fortune or liberty of his fellow-subjects: as, the courts-baron and other inferior jurisdictions where the proceedings were not enrolled or recorded, and which could hold no plea of a matter cognizable by the common law, unless under the value of forty shillings, nor of any forcible injury, not having process of arrest. The existence or truth of what is done in a coiui; not of record can, if disputed, be tried and determined by a jury; but nothing can be averred against a ” record,” q. v. A court of record is a judicial, organized tribunal having attributes and exercising functions independently of the person of the magistrate designated generally to hold it, and proceeding according to the course of the common law. The power to fine and imprison was not an indispensable attribute of a court of record. In modern law, the fact that a permanent record is kept may not stamp this character upon a court; since numerous courts of limited or special jurisdiction are obliged to keep records and yet are held to be courts not of record. courts of record are sometimes distmgtiished by the possession and use of a seal. There is high authority for making the fact that a court is a court of record the test which confers upon its proceedings, in a particular case (falling within the general scope of its jurisdiction), the presumption of jurisdiction, rather than the fact that it is a superior court of genei-al common-law powers. Minor terms descriptive of courts are: Court above or ad quern. To which a cause is taken from another and inferior court. Opposed, court below or a quo: such lower court, from which the cause is removed. Local court. For the trial of causes within comparatively narrow territorial limits: also, the court of a State, as opposed to the court of the United States to which a cause may be removed. Pull court. A session of a court at which all the members are present. Other terms descriptive of special courts will be found explained in their alphabetical places, as see, in addition to the entries following, Appeal; Arbitration; Error, 2 (3); Impeach, 4; Moot; Martial; Nisi Phius; Oyer and Terminer; Probate. See also phrases beginning Breast; By; Day; Friend; Leave; Out; Open. And see related terms, such as Attorney; Bench; Chamber; Clerk; Comity; Constitution; Contempt, 1; Costs; Crier; Deposition; Discretion, 3-5; Judge; Judgment; Judicial; Judiciary; Jurisdiction, 2; Jury; Law; Newspaper; Notice, 1, Judicial; Payment; Pleading; Praesumptio; Procedure; Record, 2; Rule, 2; Session; Term, 4; Vacation. Compare Curia; Forum. Courts of England. Statutes of 36 and 37 Vict. c. 66, and 38 and 39 Vict. c. 77, both of which went into effect November 1, 1875, consolidated into one supreme court of judicature the high court of chancery, and the courts of queen’s bench, common pleas, exchequer, admiralty, probate, and divorce and matrimonial causes. The supreme court has two divisions: the high court of justice and the court of appeal; the former of which has original and some appellate jurisdiction, and the latter appellate and some original jurisdiction. The lord chief justice is president of the former court, the lord chancellor of the latter. To the high court of justice there are five divisions; chancery; queen’s bench; common pleas; exchequer; probate, divorce, and admiralty. To each of these divisions are assigned the judges of the old courts similarly named, and the jurisdictions of those courts. Bach division has its series of reports; another series comprises the decisions of the court of appeal – ” appeal cases.” Besides these courts of superior jurisdiction are numerous others of inferior or local jurisdiction, and also ecclesiastical courts. See Judicature, Acts. As to the older English courts, see Admiralty;Aula; Chancery; Coroner; Country, 2; County, Court, 2; Exchequer; Feuds; King; Ordinary, 2; Oyer; Plea, 1; Star-chamber. Courts of Scotland. The court of session, the supreme civil court, consists of two divisions of four judges each, who together form the inner house, and of five judges (lords ordinary) who form the outer house. The judges of the outer house are judges of the first instance, with co-ordinate authority; except as to certain classes of cases appropriated to the junior, the second junior, and the third junior lord ordinary, respectively. The inner house, which is mainly a court of review, consists of the first division, presided over by the lord president, and the second division, presided over by the lord justice clerk. No action can be brought in the court of session for an amount under twenty-five pounds. Courst of the states. There is no uniformity among our States as to the number, name, or organization of their courts. Each State has some tribunal of last resort, with numerous subordinate tribunals; but the mode in which they are created, the extent of their jurisdiction, the selection of the judges and their terms of office and duties, are matters upon which each State legislates for itself. By name these courts are: a supreme court, court of appeals, or court of errors and appeals; courts of common pleas, county courts, or circuit courts for one or more counties; orphans’, probate, or surrogates’ courts; courts of sessions; recorders’ courts; city courts; superior courts; district courts; aldermen’s or justices’ courts. For an account of which, see those titles, and the names or titles and references on page 275. Courts Of The Unites States. “The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.” ” The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; – to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; – to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; – to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; – to Controversies between two or more States; – between a State and Citizens of another State; – between Citizens of different States; – between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.” See Power, 3. The judges are appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; and they hold office during good behavior. The oath taken by justices of the Supreme Court, the circuit and the district judges, is as follows: ” I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will administer justice without respect to persons, and do equal right to the poor and to the rich, and that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent on me as justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, according to the best of my abilities and understanding, agreeably to the Constitution and laws of the United States; So help me God.” The organization of the system of courts (except as to the Supreme Court) was commenced by the act of September 24, 1789, known as the Judiciary Act, q. v. The laws of the several States, except where the Constitution, treaties, or statutes of the United States otherwise provide, are to be regarded as ” rules of decision in trials at common law ” in the coiuts of the United States, in cases where they apply. This includes the rules of evidence prescribed by the laws of the States in which the United States courts sit. See further Decision, Rules of. August 8, 1791, Chief Justice Jay, in answer to an interrogation by the attorney-general, announced that ” this comi; consider the practice of the king’s bench, and of chancery, in England, as affording outlines for the practice of this court; and that they will, from time to time, make such alterations therein as circumstances may render necessary.” Remedies at common law and in equity are not according to the practice of the State courts, but according to the principles of common law and equity as distinguished in England, whence we derive our knowledge of those principles. The blending of equitable and legal causes of action in one suit is net pennissible. But in suits in equity in the circuit and district courts the forms and modes of proceeding shall be acoordmg to the principles, rules and usages belonging to courts of equity. This requirement is obligatoiy. In the following cases and proceedings jurisdiction is exclusive in the courts of the United States;” 1. Of all crimes and offenses cognizable under the authority of the United States. 2. Of all suits for penalties and forfeitures incurred under the laws thereof. 3. Of all civil causes of admiralty or maritime jurisdiction, . saving to suitors the right of such remedy as the common law is competent to give. 4. Of all seizures under Federal law not within admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. 5. Of all cases arising under patent-right or copyright laws. 6. Of all matters in bankruptcy. 7. Of all controversies of a civil nature where a State is a party, except between a State and its own citizens, citizens of other States or aliens.^8 The courts mentioned have power to issue all writs, not specifically provided for by statute, which may be necessary for the exercise of their respective jurisdictions and agreeable to the usages and principles of law.^9 A re-examination, by writ of error, may be had in the Supreme Court, of a final judgment or decree in any suit in the highest court of a State, where there is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute of, or an authority exercised under, the United States, and the decision is against their validity; or the validity of a statute of, or an authority exercised under, a State, on the ground of repugnance to the Constitution, treaties, or laws of the United States, and the decision is in favor of their validity; or where any title, right, privilege, or immunity is claimed under the Constitution, a treaty or a statute of, or commission held or authority exercised under, the United States, and the decision is against the title, right, etc., specially set up or claimed. 0 The record from the State court of last resort must present a “Federal question,” that is, the Constitution, a law, or a treaty, of the United States must have been drawn in question and its authority denied or evaded. 1 It is not enough that a Federal question was presented for decision. It must affirmatively appear that the decision was necessary to the determination of the cause, and that the judgment rendered could not have been given without deciding it.2 Writs of error to the State courts have never been allowed as of right, that is, as of course. It is the duty of the justice to whom application is made, under Rev. St. S 709, to ascertain, from the record of the State court, whether any question, cognizable on appeal, was decided in the State court, and whether the case, on the face of the record, will justify re-examination. When the case is urgent the motion for the writ may be permitted to be made in open court. But if it appears that the decision of the Federal question was so plainly right as not to require argument, and especially if it accords with well-considered judgments in similar cases, the writ will not be awarded. At the trial some title, right, privilege, or immunity must have been “specially set up or claimed” under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States. The ” inferior courts ” {which phrase see, page 275) established are: Circuit courts, District courts, Territorial courts, the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, and the Court of Claims. Congress can vest no part of its power in a State court; nor in a military commission. During the rebellion the President had power to establish provisional courts at the seat of war, as an incident to military occupation. See War. By consent of a State, Congress may impose duties upon the tribunals of a State, not incompatible with State duties. Supreme Court of the United States. This court, as seen, Was established by the Constitution itself. ” In all cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned [page 276], the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.” Congress cannot extend this orighial jurisdiction, since in all other cases the Court’s jurisdiction must be appellate. But the extent of the appellate jurisdiction is not limited by the Constitution to any particular form or mode; and the appellate is broader than the original jurisdiction. In view of the practical construction put upon the Constitution by Congress and the courts, the Supreme Court has expressed an unwillingness to say that it is not within the power of Congress to grant to the inferior courts jurisdiction in cases where that Court has been vested by the Constitution with original jurisdiction. The Court has power to issue a writ of prohibition to a district court proceeding as a court of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; also, a writ of mandamus, in a case warranted by the principles and usages of law, to an inferior Federal court or to a person holding a Federal office; where a State, a public minister, a consul or vice-consul is a party; also, to issue writs of habeas corpus; writs of scire.facias, and all other writs not especially provided for by statute, which may be necessary for the exercise of its jurisdiction and agreeable to the principles and usages of law. The justices, individually, rnay grant writs of habeas corpus, of ne exeat, and of injunction,^8 qq. v. The Court exercises appellate jurisdiction as follows: (1) By writ of error from the final judgment of a circuit court, or of any district court exercising the powers of a circuit court, in civil actions brought there by original process, or removed thei-e from the court of a State, and in final judgments of any circuit court in civil actions brought from the district court, where the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds $5,000.^9 (3) Upon appeal from the decree of a circuit court in cases of equity and of admiralty, where the sum in controversy, exclusive of costs, exceeds $5,000.0 (3) And in certain other oases in admiralty, for which see act of February, 1875, 18 St. L. 315. (4) Upon appeal, or error upon a certificate of differences of opinion between the judges of a circuit court. (5) Upon appeals in prize cases. (6) In patent and copyright cases; in revenue cases; in alleged abridgment of the rights of citizenship. (7) In cases from the judgment or decree of the supreme court of the District of Columbia or of any Territory, when the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds $1,000 and as to the supreme court of the said District $2,500, and of Washington Territory, $2,000; except in cases involving the validity of a patent or copyright, or in which is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute of or an authority exer ed under the United States, in which cases appeal or error lies regardless of the sum or value in dispute. In cases in the court of claims, decided for the plaintiff, the sum being over $3,000 or his claim forfeited. (8) In capital cases and cases of bigamy or polygamy from Utah Territory.^8 (9) Incases involving a Federal question, as see page 277. (10) Where a court dismisses or remands a cause to a State court. Its criminal jurisdiction includes such proceedings against public ministers or their domestic servants as a court of law can have consistently with the law ot nations.^9 The judges of the Supreme Court consist of a chief justice and eight associate justices, any six of whom constitute a quorum; 0 the latter have precedence according to the dates of their commissions, or, where the dates are the same, according to age.1 The number ot members was originally five; in 1807, it was made six; in 1837, eight; and in 1863, nine. The Court holds one term, annually, at Washington City, commencing on the second Monday of October, and such special terms as it may find necessary. 2 Provision is made for adjournments when a quorum does not attend.3 The Court appoints a clerk, a marshal, and a reporter of its decisions.4 The ceremony observed in opening and closing the Court is as follows: When the marshal appears, at twelve o’clock noon (in advance of the justices), at the north door of the court room, the crier raps on the desk three times, for the audience to come to order and to rise from their seats. When the chief justice enters the door the crier announces “The honorable, the chief justice and associate justices of the Supreme Court of the United States ” As the justices seat themselves, after ascending the platform, the crier proclaims: “O yez! O yezl O yezI All persons having business before the honorable, the Supreme -Court of the United States, are admonished to draw near and give their attention, for the Court is now sitting. God save the United States and this honorable Courtl ” At four o’clock P. M., on intimation (usually a gesture) from the chief justice, or at such other time as he may indicate, the crier announces: “This honorable Court is now adjourned until to-morrow at twelve o’clock,” or until ” Monday, at twelve o’clock.” Circuit courts of the United States. These are courts of the “circuits” into which the country is divided; each circuit being composed of at least three “judicial districts.” In number and territorial jurisdiction the courts correspond with the following circuits: First. – Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. Second. – Vermont, Connecticut, and New York. Third. – New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Fourth.- Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Fifth.- Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. Sixth.- Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Seventh.- Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin. Eighth. – Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas, and Colorado. Ninth.- California, Oregon, and Nevada. For the second circuit an additional judgeship was created by the act of March 3, 1887 (24 St. L. 492). The “senior judge” sits in election proceedings (R. S. §§ 2011-14), unless absent or unable to serve, in which event the ” junior judge ” may act. There are also courts called ” circuit courts ” for particular districts within Alabama, Arkansas, and Mississippi.” A circuit court consists of a justice of the Supreme Court, called the ” circuit justice,” a ” circuit judge ” for the circuit having the same powers as the circuit justice, and the ” district judge ” of the district where the circuit court is held. Any two of these officials may hold court. The ” circuit justice,” sitting apart, may try cases; during every two ye ars he must attend at least one term of court in tlie district. By consent of the parties the district judge may vote on an appeal from his own decision; but judgment is to be rendered in conformity with the opinion of the presiding judge. When a circuit justice, or all the judges, are disqualified from any cause, a case may be certified to the most convenient circuit, or the judge thereof may be requested to hold the court. Each court appoints its own clerks and their deputies. Each court also appoints as “commissioners” as many discreet persons, none of them being a marshal or his deputy, as may be deemed necessary; but they are not considered ofdcersof the court. They are authorized to hold persons to security of the peace, and for good behavior in cases arising under Federal law, to take bail and affidavits required in another circuit or a district court.^8 They may imprison or bail offenders; ^9 discharge poor convicts; 0 administer oaths and take acknowledgments;1 apprehend fugitives from justice.2 They are required to conform their proceedings in criminal cases to the practice in the State courts as far as practicable.3 They are impliedly authorized to keep a docket, and entitled to docket fees.4 The jurisdiction of the circuit courts is such as Congress confers.5 A general description of the original jurisdiction is, that it estends (subject to some limitations founded upon residence) . to civil suits involving more than $2,000, – (by act of March 3, 1887,- prior thereto $500) exclusive of costs, and arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States, or in which the United States are plaintiffs, or in which the controversy is between different States, or citizens of a State and foreign States, citizens, and subjects; also of crimes under the laws of the United States. They have no appellate jurisdiction over the district courts. 6 By act of March 3, 1875,7 a new definition was given of the jurisdiction, which is very comprehensive, and has been held to be a substitute for and implied repeal of the provisions of the Revision of 1873. See further act of March 3, 1887, page 281. The $2,000 provision relates to the amount “in dispute,” not to the amount claimed. The Supreme Court has power of review where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum or value of $5,000, exclusive of costs. The matter in dispute may be made up of distinct demands each less than $2,000, and although title be acquired by assignment.. The jurisdiction is co-extensive with the limits of the State. Where there are two districts in a State, a citizen of such State is liable to suit in either district, itserved with process. The fact that a nominal or immaterial party resides in the same State with one of the actual parties will not defeat the jurisdiction.. The court, not being a foreign court, adopts and applies the law of the State.


Notes and References



Guide to Courts

In this Section

Courts, Court of Common Pleas, Court of High Commission, Court of Star Chamber, English Court System Developments, Criminal Courts Structure and Civil Courts Structure.

Some UK Courts

[rtbs name=”courts”]UK Courts include the following items:

House of Lords

See this section in the UK legal Encyclopedia for more information.

Privy Council

See this section in the UK legal Encyclopedia for more information.

Supreme Court



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