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Criminal Law in United Kingdom

General Principles

Crime and sentence

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

The definition of a crime

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

The classification of offences

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

The elements of a crime: actus reus

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

The elements of a crime: mens rea

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

Crimes of negligence

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

Crimes of strict liability

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

Parties to crime

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

Assistance after the offence

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

Vicarious liability and liability of associations

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

General defences

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

Mental condition offences

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

Incitement, conspiracy and attempt

There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia.

Particular Crimes

Theres is an entry in the Encyclopedia about particular crimes here.

Resources

Further Reading

  • ALEXANDER, L., ‘Criminal Liability for Omissions: An Inventory of Issues’, in S.
    Shute and A. P. Simester (eds), Criminal Law Theory: Doctrines of the General
    Part (2002), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • ALLDRIDGE, P., ‘ ”Attempted Murder of the Soul”: Blackmail, Privacy and Secrets’
    (1993) 13 Oxford JLS 368.
  • ALLDRIDGE, P., ‘The Coherence of Defences’ [1983] Crim LR 665.
  • ALLDRIDGE, P., ‘Dealing with Drug Dealing’, in A. P. Simester and A. T. H. Smith (eds),
    Harm and Culpability (1996), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • ALLDRIDGE, P., ‘Developing the Defence of Duress’ [1986] Crim LR 433.
  • ALLDRIDGE, P., ‘The Doctrine of Innocent Agency’ (1990) 2 Criminal Law Forum 45.
  • ALLDRIDGE, P., Money Laundering Law (2003), London: Butterworths.
  • ALLDRIDGE, P., Relocating Criminal Law (2000), Aldershot: Dartmouth.
  • ALLDRIDGE, P., ‘Rules for Courts and Rules for Citizens’ (1990) 10 Oxford JLS 487.
  • ALLDRIDGE, P., ‘The Sexual Offences (Conspiracy and Incitement) Act 1996’ [1997]
    Crim LR 30.
  • ALLDRIDGE, P.,‘Threats Offences—a Case for Reform’ [1994] Crim LR 176.
  • ALLDRIDGE, P., ‘What’s Wrong with the Traditional Criminal Law Course?’ (1990) 10 Legal
    Studies 38.
  • ALLEN, M. J., ‘Consent and Assault’ [1994] J Crim Law 183.
  • AMERICAN LAW INSTITUTE, Model Penal Code, revised edn (with commentaries)
    (1980), Philadelphia American Law Institute.
  • ANDANAES, J., ‘Error Juris in Scandinavian Law’, in G. Mueller (ed.), Essays in
    Criminal Science (1961), London: Sweet & Maxwell.
  • ANDREWS, J. A., ‘Wilfulness: a Lesson in Ambiguity’ (1981) 1 Legal Studies 303.
  • ANYANGWE, C., ‘Dealing with the Problem of Bad Cheques in France’ [1978] Crim LR 31.
  • ARDEN, J., ‘Criminal Law at the Crossroads: The Impact of Human Rights from the Law Commission’s Perspective and the Need for a Code’ [1999] Crim LR 439.
  • ARLIDGE, A., ‘The Trial of Dr. Moor’ [2000] Crim LR 31.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘A Change of Normative Position: Determining the Contours of Culpability in Criminal Law’ (2008) 11 New Crim LR 232.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Criminal Attempts and the Role of Resulting Harm under the Code, and in the Common Law’ (1988) 19 Rutgers LJ 725.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Criminal Liability in a Medical Context: The Treatment of Good Intentions’,
    in A. P. Simester and A. T. H. Smith (eds), Harm and Culpability (1996), Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Defining Criminal Offences without Harm’, in P. F. Smith (ed.), Criminal Law: Essays in Honour of J. C. Smith (1987), London: Butterworths.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘The Elasticity of Mens Rea’, in C. Tapper (ed.), Crime, Proof and Punishment
    (1981), London: Butterworths.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Excusable Mistake of Law’ [1974] Crim LR 652.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Four Threats to the Presumption of Innocence’ (2006) 123 SALJ 62.
  • ASHWORTH, A., Human Rights, Serious Crime and Criminal Procedure (2002), London: Sweet & Maxwell.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Ignorance of the Criminal Law, and Duties to Avoid It’ (2011) 74 MLR 1
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Interpreting Criminal Statutes: A Crisis of Legality?’ (1991) 107 LQR 419.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Intoxication and the General Defences’ [1980] Crim LR 556.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Is the Criminal Law a Lost Cause?’ (2000) 116 LQR 225.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Principles, Pragmatism, and the Law Commission’s Recommendations
    on Homicide Law Reform’ [2007] Crim LR 333.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Prosecution, Police and the Public: A Guide to Good Gate Keeping’
    (1984) 23 Howard JCJ 621.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Reason, Logic and Criminal Liability’ (1975) 91 LQR 102.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Re-Drawing the Boundaries of Entrapment’ [2002] Crim LR 161.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Responsibilities, Rights and Restorative Justice’ (2002) 42 BJ Crim 578.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Robbery Reassessed’ [2002] Crim LR 851.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘The Scope of Criminal Liability for Omissions’ (1989) 105 LQR 424.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Self-Defence and the Right to Life’ [1975] CLJ 282.
  • ASHWORTH, A., Sentencing and Criminal Justice (5th edn, 2010), Cambridge: Cambridge
    University Press.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Should Strict Criminal Liability be Removed from All Imprisonable Offences?’ (2010) 45 Irish Jurist 1.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Social Control and “Anti-Social Behaviour”: The Subversion of Human
    Rights?’ (2004) 120 LQR 263.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Taking the Consequences’, in S. Shute, J. Gardner, and J. Horder
    (eds), Action and Value in Criminal Law (1993), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Testing Fidelity to Legal Values’ in S. Shute and A. P. Simester (eds),
    Criminal Law Theory: Doctrines of the General Part (2002), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Testing Fidelity to Legal Values: Official Involvement and Criminal Justice’
    (2000) 63 MLR 633.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘The Unfairness of Risk-Based Possession Offences’ (2011) 5 Criminal
    Law & Philosophy 237.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Towards a Theory of Criminal Legislation’ (1989) 1 Criminal Law Forum 41.
  • ASHWORTH, A., ‘Transferred Malice and Punishment for Unforeseen Consequences’, in
    P. Glazebrook (ed.), Reshaping the Criminal Law (1978), London: Sweet & Maxwell.
  • ASHWORTH, A., and BLAKE, M., ‘The Presumption of Innocence in English Criminal Law’
    [1996] Crim LR 306.
  • ASHWORTH, A., and MITCHELL, B. (eds), Rethinking English Homicide Law (2000), Oxford:
    Oxford University Press.
  • ASHWORTH, A., and REDMAYNE, M., The Criminal Process (4th edn, 2010), Oxford: Oxford
    University Press.
  • ASHWORTH, A., and STEINER, E., ‘Criminal Omissions and Public Duties: the French Experience’ (1990) 10 Legal Studies 153.
  • ASHWORTH, A., and ZEDNER, L., ‘Defending the Criminal Law: Reflections on the
    Changing Character of Crime, Procedure and Sanctions’ (2008) 2 Criminal
    Law and Philosophy 21.
  • ATIYAH, P. S., Vicarious Liability in the Law of Torts (1967), London: Butterworths.
  • AULD LJ, Review of the Criminal Courts of England and Wales (2001), London: The Stationery Office.
  • AUSTIN, J., Lectures on Jurisprudence (5th edn, 1885), London: J. Murray.
  • AUSTIN, J. L., ‘A Plea for Excuses’, in H. Morris (ed.), Freedom and Responsibility (1961), Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • BAILEY, V. and BLACKBURN, S., ‘The Punishment of Incest Act 1908: A Case Study in Law Creation’ [1979] Crim LR 708.
  • BAKER, E., ‘Human Rights, M’Naghten and the 1991 Act’ [1994] Crim LR 84.
  • BAKER, E., ‘Taking European Criminal Law Seriously’ [1998] Crim LR 361.
  • BALDWIN, R., ‘The New Punitive Regulation’ (2004) 67 MLR 351.
  • BALL, C., ‘Youth Justice? Half a Century of Responses to Youth Offending’, [2004] Crim LR 167.
  • BAMFORTH, N., ‘Sado-Masochism and Consent’ [1994] Crim LR 661.
  • BANKOWSKI, Z., and MACCORMICK, D. N., ‘Statutory Interpretation in the United Kingdom’, in D. N. MacCormick and R. S. Summers (eds), Interpreting Statutes: a Comparative Study (1991), London: Dartmouth.
  • BAZELON, D., ‘The Morality of the Criminal Law’ (1976) 49 S Cal LR 385.
  • BEATSON, J. and SIMESTER, A. P., (1999) 115 LQR 372
  • BELL, J., Policy Arguments in Judicial Decisions (1983), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • BENNETT, R., ‘Should we Criminalize HIV Transmission?’, in C. Erin and S. Ost (eds.), The Criminal Justice System and Health Care (2007), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • BENTHAM, J., Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789), Oxford: Blackwell (1948).
  • BEYNON, H., ‘Causation, Omissions and Complicity’ [1987] Crim LR 539.
  • BINGHAM, LORD, ‘A Criminal Code: Must We Wait for Ever?’ [1998] Crim LR 694.
  • BITTNER, E., ‘The Police on Skid Row: A Study in Peacekeeping’ (1967) 32 Amer Soc Rev 699.
  • BLACKSTONE, W., Commentaries on the Laws of England (1768), London: Apollo Press.
  • BLAKE, M., ‘Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Criminal Offence or a Patient’s Right?’ (1997) 5 Medical LR 294.
  • BLOM-COOPER, L. and MORRIS, T., With Malice Aforethought: A Study of the Crime and Punishment for Homicide (2004).
  • BOGG, A. and STANTON-IFE, J., ‘Protecting the Vulnerable: Legality, Harm and Theft’, (2003) 23 Legal Studies 402.
  • BOHLANDER, M., Principles of German Criminal Law (2009), Oxford: Hart Publsihing
  • BOHLANDER, M., ‘The Sexual Offences Act 2003 and the Tyrell Principle— Criminalising the Victims?’ [2005] Crim LR 701.
  • BOWLING, B. and PHILLIPS, C., Racism, Crime and Justice (2002).
  • BRADLY LORD, Review of People with Mental Health Problems or Learning Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System (2009) London: HMSO
  • BRAITHWAITE, J., Corporate Crime in the Pharmaceutical Industry (1984), London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • BRAITHWAITE, J. and FISSE, B., ‘The Allocation of Responsibility for Corporate Crime’ (1988) 11 Sydney LR 468.

BRETT, P., ‘Mistake of Law as a Criminal Defence’ (1966) 5 Melb U LR 179.
BRODY, S. and TARLING, R., Taking Offenders out of Circulation, Home Office
Research Study No. 64 (1980), London: HMSO.

BRONITT, S., ‘Spreading Disease and the Criminal Law’ [1994] Crim LR 21.
BROOKE, SIR H., ‘The Law Commission and Criminal Law Reform’ [1995] Crim
LR 911.
BROWN, D. and ELLIS, T., Policing Low-level Disorder: Police Use of Section 5
of the Public Order Act 1986, Home Office Research Study No. 135 (1994),
London: HMSO.
BROWNLEE, I., ‘The Statutory Charging Scheme in England and Wales: Towards
a Unified Prosecution System?’ [2004] Crim LR 896.
BRUDNER, A., ‘Agency and Welfare in the Penal Law’, in S. Shute, J. Gardner,
and J. Horder (eds), Action and Value in Criminal Law (1993), Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
——— ‘A Theory of Necessity’ (1987) 7 Oxford JLS 338.
BUCHANAN, A. and VIRGO, G., ‘Duress and Mental Abnormality’ [1999] Crim LR
517.
BUCKE, T. and BROWN, D., In Police Custody: Police Powers and Suspects’
Rights under the Revised PACE Codes of Practice (1997), London: The
Home Office.
BUCKE, T. and JAMES, Z., Trespass and Protest: Policing under the Criminal
Justice and Public Order Act 1994, Home Office Research Study No. 190
(1998), London: The Home Office.
BURCHELL, J., Principles of Criminal Law (4th edn, 2012), Lansdowne: Juta.
BURNEY E, Making People Behave: Anti Social Behaviour, Politics and Policy
(2nd edn. 2009), Cullompton: Willan
BUXTON, R. J., ‘By Any Unlawful Act’ (1966) 82 LQR 174.
——— ‘Circumstances, Consequences and Attempted Rape’ [1984] Crim LR
25.
BUZZARD, J., ‘Intent’ [1978] Crim LR 5.
CADOPPI, A., ‘Failure to Rescue and the Continental Criminal Law’, in M. A.
Menlowe and R. A. McCall Smith, The Duty to Rescue (1993), Aldershot:
Dartmouth.
CAMPBELL, K., ‘Conditional Intention’ (1982) 2 Legal Studies 77.
——— ‘Offence and Defence’, in I. Dennis (ed.), Criminal Law and Criminal
Justice (1987), London: Sweet & Maxwell.
——— ‘The Test of Dishonesty in R v Ghosh’ [1984] CLJ 349.
CARD, R., Public Order: The New Law (1986), London: Butterworths.
——— ‘Authority and Excuse as Defences to Crime’ [1969] Crim LR 359.
CHALMERS, J., ‘Merging Provocation and Diminished Responsibility: Some
Reasons for Scepticism’ [2004] Crim LR 198.
——— and LEVERICK, F., ‘Fair Labelling in Criminal Law’ (2008) 71 MLR 217.
CHILDS, M., ‘Sexual Autonomy and Law’ (2001) 64 MLR 309.
CHRISTOPHER, R., ‘Self-Defence and Objectivity’ (1998) 1 Buffalo Crim LR 537.
——— ‘Unknowing Justification and the Logical Necessity of the Dadson Principle
in Self-Defence’ (1995) 15 Oxford JLS 229.
CLARKE, R. V. G., Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies (2nd
edn, 1997), New York: Harrow and Heston.
CLARKSON, C., ‘Complicity, Powell and Manslaughter’ [1998] Crim LR 556.
——— ‘Context and Culpability in Involuntary Manslaughter’, in A. Ashworth and
B. Mitchell (eds), Rethinking English Homicide Law (2000), Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
——— ‘Corporate Manslaughter: Need for a Special Offence?’, in C. Clarkson and S. Cunningham (eds), Criminal Liability for Non-Aggressive Death
(2008), Aldershot: Ashgate.
——— ‘Necessary Action: A New Defence’ [2004] Crim LR 81.
——— ‘Theft and Fair Labelling’ (1993) 56 MLR 554.
——— CRETNEY, A., DAVIS, G. and SHEPHERD, J., ‘Assaults: The Relationship
between Seriousness, Criminalisation and Punishment’ [1994] Crim LR 4.
——— and CUNNINGHAM, S. (eds), Criminal Liability for Non-Aggressive Death
(2008), Aldershot: Ashgate.
COGGON, J., ‘Ignoring the moral and intellectual shape of the law after Bland’
(2007) 27 LS 110.
COLB, S., ‘Freedom from Incarceration: Why is this Right different from all other
Rights?’ (1994) 69 NYULR 781.
COLLINS, H., Marxism and Law (1982), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
COLVIN, E., ‘Exculpatory Defences in Criminal Law’ (1990) 10 Oxford JLS 381.
COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, Children and Corporal Punishment: ‘the
Right not to be Hit’, also a ‘Children’s Right’ (2006) 43 EHRR SE17.
COMMITTEE ON THE PENALTY FOR HOMICIDE, Report (1993), London: Prison Reform
Trust.
CRAWFORD A. and EVANS K., ‘Crime Prevention and Community Safety’ in M.
Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds), Oxford Handbook of Criminology
(5th edn, 2012), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
CRIMINAL LAW REVISION COMMITTEE, 8th Report, Theft and Related Offences,
Cmnd 2977 (1966), London: HMSO.
——— 14th Report, Offences against the Person, Cmnd 7844 (1980), London:
HMSO.
Ashworth & Horder: Principles of Criminal Law, 7th edition

CROALL, H., White Collar Crime (1992), Milton Keynes: Open University Press
CROSS, R., ‘Centenary Reflections on Prince’s Case’ (1975) 91 LQR 540.
——— ‘The Mental Element in Crime’ (1967) 83 LQR 215.
——— BELL, J. and ENGLE, G., Statutory Interpretation (3rd edn, 1995), London:
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CROWN PROSECUTION SERVICE, Code for Crown Prosecutors (6th edn, 2010).
CUNNINGHAM, S., ‘Punishing Drivers who Kill: Putting Road Safety First?’
(2007) 27 LS 288.
——— ‘The Reality of Vehicular Homicides: Convictions for Murder, Manslaughter
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——— ‘Vehicular Homicide: Need for a Specific Offence?’, in C. Clarkson and
S. Cunningham (eds), Criminal Liability for Non-Aggressive Death (2008),
Aldershot: Ashgate.
DE BÚRCA, G. and GARDNER, S., ‘The Codification of the Criminal Law’ (1990)
10 Oxford JLS 559.
DEMPSEY, M. M., ‘Rethinking Wolfenden: Prostitute-Use, Criminal Law and
Remote Harm’ [2005] Crim LR 444.
——— and HERRING, J., ‘Why Sexual Penetration Requires Justification’
(2007) 27 Oxford JLS 467.
DENNIS, I., ‘The Criminal Attempts Act 1981’ [1982] Crim LR 5.
——— ‘Duress, Murder and Criminal Responsibility’ (1980) 96 LQR 208.
——— ‘The Law Commission Report on Attempt: The Elements of Attempt’
[1980] Crim LR 758.
——— ‘The Rationale of Criminal Conspiracy’ (1977) 93 LQR 39.
——— ‘Silence in the Police Station: The Marginalisation of Section 34’ [2002]

Crim LR 25.
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, Protecting Children, Supporting Parents (2000), London:
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DERSHOWITZ, A., Preemption (2006), London: W. W. Norton.
DEVLIN, P., The Enforcement of Morals (1965), Oxford: Oxford University
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——— Samples of Lawmaking (1970), London: Oxford University Press.
DICEY, A. V., Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (8th edn,
1923), London: Stevens.
DILLOF, A. M., ‘Transferred Intent: An Inquiry into the Nature of Criminal Culpability’
(1998) 1 Buffalo Crim LR 501.
DINGWALL, G., Alcohol and Crime (2006), Cullompton: Willan.
DODD, T., et al., Crime in England and Wales 2003/2004 (Home Office Statistical
Bulletin 10/04), London: The Home Office.
DRESSLER, J., Understanding Criminal Law (3rd edn, 2001), New York: Matthew
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——— ‘Battered Women who Kill their Sleeping Tormentors’, in S. Shute and
A. P. Simester (eds), Criminal Law Theory: Doctrines of the General Party
(2002), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
——— ‘Justifications and Excuses: A Brief Review of the Concept and the Literature’
(1987) 33 Wayne LR 1155.
DRESSLER, J., ‘Reflections on Excusing Wrongdoers: Moral Theory, New Excuses
and the Model Penal Code’ (1988) 19 Rutgers LJ 671.
DUBBER, M., ‘The Possession Paradigm: The Special Part and the Police
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DUFF, R. A., Answering for Crime (2007), Oxford: Hart Publishing.
——— Criminal Attempts (1996), Oxford: Clarendon Press.
——— ‘The Circumstances of an Attempt’ (1991) 50 Camb LJ 100.
——— ‘Criminalizing Endangerment’, in R. A. Duff and S. P. Green (eds), Defining
Crimes (2005), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
——— ‘Fitness to Plead and Fair Trials’ [1994] Crim LR 419.
——— Intention, Agency and Criminal Liability (1990), Oxford: Blackwell.
——— ‘Law, Language and Community: Some Preconditions of Criminal Liability’
(1998) 18 Oxford JLS 189.
——— Punishment, Communication and Community (2001), Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
——— ‘Whose Luck is it Anyway?’, in C. Clarkson and S. Cunningham (eds),
Criminal Liability for Non-Aggressive Death (2008), Aldershot: Ashgate.
DWORKIN, R., A Matter of Principle (1985), London: Duckworth.
——— Taking Rights Seriously (1977), London: Duckworth.
EDWARDS, S., ‘Abolishing Provocation and Re-Framing Self-Defence—The
Law Commission’s Options for Reform’ [2004] Crim LR 181.
——— ‘Loss of Self Control: When His Anger is Worth More Than Her Fear’ in
A. Reed and M. Bohlander (eds), Loss of Self-control and Diminished Responsibility:
Domestic, Comparative and International Perspectives (2011)
Aldershot: Ashgate.
ELLIOTT, C and THAN, C DE., ‘A Case for Rational Reconstruction of Consent
in Criminal Law’ (2007) 70 MLR 225.
ELLIOTT, D. W., ‘Criminal Damage’ [1988] Crim LR 403.
——— ‘Directors’ Thefts and Dishonesty’ [1991] Crim LR 732.
——— ‘Dishonesty in Theft: A Dispensable Concept’ [1982] Crim LR 395.
——— ‘Endangering Life by Destroying or Damaging Property’ [1997] Crim LR
382.
——— ‘Necessity, Duress and Self-Defence’ [1989] Crim LR 611.
EMBRAHIM, I., et al., ‘Violence, Sleepwalking and the Criminal Law: The Medical
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EMMERSON, B., ASHWORTH, A. and MACDONALD, L. (eds), Human Rights and
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ENVIRONMENT AGENCY, Enforcement and Prosecution Policy (2003), at .
ERIN, C., ‘The Rightful Domain of the Criminal Law’, in C. Erin and S. Ost
(eds), The Criminal Justice System and Health Care (2007), Oxford: Oxford
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FARMER, L., ‘ ”The Genius of our Law”: Criminal Law and the Scottish Legal
Tradition’ (1992) 55 MLR 25.
FARRIER, M. D., ‘The Distinction between Murder and Manslaughter in its Procedural
Context’ (1976) 39 MLR 414.
FARRINGTON, D., ‘Childhood Risk Factors and Risk-Focused Prevention’, in M.
Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds), Oxford Handbook of Criminology
(4th edn, 2007), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
FEINBERG, J., Harm to Others (1984), New York: Oxford University Press.
FEINBERG, J., Harm to Self (1986), New York: Oxford University Press.
——— Harmless Wrongdoing (1988), New York: Oxford University Press.
——— Offense to Others (1986), New York: Oxford University Press.
FEIST, A., et al., Investigating and Detecting Recorded Offences of Rape
(2007), London: Home Office.
FERGUSON, P. W., ‘Codifying Criminal Law: (1) A Critique of Scots Common
Law’ [2004] Crim LR 49.
FIELDING, N., Courting Violence: Offences Against the Person in Court (2006),
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
FINCH, E., The Criminalisation of Stalking (2001), London: Cavendish.
——— and MUNRO, V., ‘Breaking Boundaries? Sexual Consent in the Jury
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——— ‘Intoxicated Consent and Drug-Assisted Rape Revisited’ [2004] Crim
LR 789.
FINGARETTE, H., ‘Addiction and Criminal Responsibility’ (1975) 84 Yale LJ 413.
FINKELSTEIN, C., ‘Involuntary Crimes, Voluntarily Committed’, in S. Shute and
A. P. Simester (eds), Criminal Law Theory: Doctrines of the General Part
(2002), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
——— ‘Merger and Felony Murder’, in R. A. Duff and S. P. Green (eds), Defining
Crimes (2005), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
——— ‘Two Models of Murder: Patterns of Criminalisation in the United States’, in
J. Horder (ed), Homicide Law in Comparative Perspective (2007), Oxford: Hart
Publishing.
FINNIS, J., ‘Intention and Side-Effects’, in R. G. Frey and C. W. Morris, Liability
and Responsibility (1991), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
——— ‘Invoking the Principle of Legality against the Rule of Law’ (2011) New
Zealand Law Review [2010]
FISCHER, J., ‘Responsibility and Control’ (1982) 79 Journal of Philosophy 24.
FISSE, B. and BRAITHWAITE, J., Corporations, Crime and Accountability (1993),
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Flatley J., et al., Crime in England and Wales, 2009-10, Findings from the British
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FLETCHER, G., Rethinking Criminal Law (1978), Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown.
FORTSON, R., Blackstone’s Guide to the Serious Crimes Act 2007 (2008), Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
———‘The Modern Partial Defence of Diminished Responsibility’ in A. Reed and
M. Bohlander (eds), Loss of Self-control and Diminished Responsibility: Domestic,
Comparative and International Perspectives (2011) Aldershot: Ashgate.
FOSTER, SIR M., Crown Law (1762), London: Dodson.
FULFORD, K. W. M., ‘Value, Action, Mental Illness, and the Law’, in S. Shute, J.
Gardner, and J. Horder (eds), Action and Value in Criminal Law (1993), Oxford:
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GALLIGAN, D. J., ‘Responsibility for Recklessness’ (1978) 31 CLP 55.
GARDNER, J., ‘Ashworth on Principles’ in L. Zedner and J. V. Roberts (eds),
Principles and Values in Criminal Law and Criminal Justice (2012), Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
———‘Complicity and Causality’ (2007) 1 Crim Law & Phil 127.
——— ‘Criminal Law and the Uses of Theory: A Reply to Laing’ (1994) 14 Oxford
JLS 217.
——— ‘On the General Part of Criminal Law’, in R. A. Duff (ed.), Philosophy
and the Criminal Law (1998), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

——— ‘Justification under Authority’ (2010) 23 Canadian Journal of Law and
Jurisprudence 71
——— ‘Justifications and Reasons’ in A. P. Simester and A. T. H. Smith (eds),
Harm and Culpability (1996), Oxford: Clarendon Press.
——— Offences and Defences (2007), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
——— ‘Rationality and the Rule of Law in Offences against the Person’ [1994]
Camb LJ 502.
——— and JUNG, H., ‘Making Sense of Mens Rea: Antony Duff’s Account’
(1991) 11 Oxford JLS 559.
——— and MACKLEM, T., ‘Compassion without Respect? Nine Fallacies in R v
Smith’ [2001] Crim LR 623.
GARDNER, J., and SHUTE, S., ‘The Wrongness of Rape’, in J. Horder (ed.), Oxford
Essays in Jurisprudence (4th Series) (2000), Oxford: Oxford University
Press.
GARDNER, S., ‘Direct Action and the Defence of Necessity’ [2005] Crim LR
371.
——— ‘Necessity’s Newest Inventions’ (1991) 11 Oxford JLS 125.
——— ‘Property and Theft’ [1998] Crim LR 35.
——— ‘Reiterating the Criminal Code’ (1992) 55 MLR 839.
GENDERS, E., ‘Reform of Offences against the Person Act: Lessons from the
Law in Action’ [1999] Crim LR 689.
GILES, M., ‘Judicial Lawmaking in the Criminal Courts: The Case of Marital
Rape’ [1992] Crim LR 407.
——— and UGLOW, S., ‘Appropriation and Manifest Criminality in Theft’ (1992)
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Definition of Criminal Law

Identifies and makes it a criminal offence to behave in ways considered wrong and for which society feels there is a need for punishment.

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  • AVAILABLE IMMEDIATELY. Company number is available for immediate use.
  • COMPETITIVE PRICES. Vintage company prices vary depending on date of formation, but we have the best prices.
Prices by year of formation:
  • 17-Jun-03: £4.900
  • 25-Jun-03: £4.900
  • 30-sep-03: £4.800
  • 04-Jan-05: £3.900
  • 17-Oct-05: £3.700
  • 17-Oct-05: £3.700
  • 13-Jul-07: £2.900
If you would like to buy 3 UK Vintage Shelf Companies or more, we would like to offer you discounts on net prices. Contact us to law@braxton.uk.com.

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This entry about Criminal Law has been published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0) licence, which permits unrestricted use and reproduction, provided the author or authors of the Criminal Law entry and the Encyclopedia of Law are in each case credited as the source of the Criminal Law entry. Please note this CC BY licence applies to some textual content of Criminal Law, and that some images and other textual or non-textual elements may be covered by special copyright arrangements. For guidance on citing Criminal Law (giving attribution as required by the CC BY licence), please see below our recommendation of "Cite this Entry".

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(2015, 05). Criminal Law lawi.org.uk Retrieved 01, 2021, from https://lawi.org.uk/criminal-law/

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"Criminal Law" lawi.org.uk. lawi.org.uk, 05 2015. Web. 01 2021. <https://lawi.org.uk/criminal-law/>

"Criminal Law" lawi.org.uk. 05, 2015. Accesed 01 2021. https://lawi.org.uk/criminal-law/

International, 'Criminal Law' (lawi.org.uk 2015) <https://lawi.org.uk/criminal-law/> accesed 2021 January 18

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  • Article Name: Criminal Law
  • Author: International
  • Description: General Principles Crime and sentence There is a main entry about this section in the Encyclopedia. The definition of a [...]

This entry was last updated: May 4, 2015

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