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Implied Terms in United Kingdom

Implied Terms in Contract Formation

“Certain terms may be implied into contracts by law, or by usage or custom. The Sale of Goods Act and the Sale of Goods and Services Act contain terms -according to Pinsent Mason’s literature about Implied Terms– which are implied into all contracts for the sale of goods and services, primarily for the purpose of consumer protection. The supplier of goods or services must provide goods of a satisfactory quality which are fit for the consumer’s purpose or perform the services with reasonable skill and care. A more general statute to protect buyers is the Unfair Contract Terms Act. This Act seeks to prevent parties limiting or excluding their liability in contracts. Generally, any exclusion of liability must be reasonable.

Implied Terms in Contract Formation in Europe

Some bibliography about this issue is available here:

  • BIRD, T. C., “Directive 99/44/EC on Certain Aspects of the Sale of Consumer Goods and Associated Guarantees: Its Impact on Existing Irish Sale of Goods Law”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 279 y ss.
  • BRADGATE, R., “Harmonisation of Legal Guarantees: A Common Law Perspective”, Cons.L.J., 1995, pp. 94 y ss.
  • BRADGATE, R., “Consumer Guarantees: the EC´s draft Directive”, Web Journal of Current Legal Issues (http://webjcli.ncl.ac.uk), 1997-1.
  • BRADGATE, R./ TWIGG-FLESNER, C., Consumer Sales and Associated Guarantees, Blackstone, 2004.
  • CRANSTON, R., “The Green Paper on Guarantees”, Cons.L.J., 1995, pp. 100 y ss.
  • DEARS, E., “The Proposed Guarantees Directiva: Is is Fir for the Purpose?”, JConsP, 1998, pp. 99 y ss.
  • DICKE, J., “A Step Closer to European Sale of Goods Law? Commission Draft Directive on the Sale of Consumer Goods”, Journal of Business Law, 1997, pp. 167 y ss.
  • HOGG, M., “Scottish law and the European Consumer Sales Directive”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 337 y ss.
  • GRUNDMANN/D. MEDICUS/W. ROLLAND, “Towards a European Sales Law — Legal Challenges Posed by the Directive on the Sale of Consumer Goods and Associated Guarantees”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 157 y ss.
  • HONDIUS, E.,/SCHELHAAS, H., “In Conformity with the Consumer Sales Directive? Some Remarks on Transposition into Dutch Law”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 327 y ss.
  • HOWELLS, G./TWIGG-FLESNER, C., “Much ado about nothing?”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 303 y ss.
  • JONGENEEL, R. H. C.,“The sale of goods in the Netherlands Civil Code: A contribution to the discussion about the Green Paper on guarantees for consumer goods and after-sales services”, Cons.L.J., 1995, pp. 143 y ss.
  • KRUISINGA, S. A., “What do Consumer and Commercial Sales Law Have in Common? A Comparison of the EC Directive on Consumer Sales Law and the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 177 y ss.
  • LETE ACHIRICA, J., “The Impact on Spanish Contract Law of the EC Directive on the Sale of Consumer Goods and Associated Guarantees”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 351 y ss.
  • SCHNYDER/EINHORN/GIRSBERGER (Coord.), Private Law in the International Arena – From National Conflict Rules Towards Harmonistation and Unification – Liber Amicorum Kurt Siehr, 2000, pp. 429 y ss.
  • PARISI, F., “The Harmonization of Legal Warranties in European Sales Law: An Economic Analysis”, George Mason University, School of Law, Law and Economics Working Paper Series, 01-20.
  • SCOTTON, M., “Directive 99/44/EC on Certain Aspects of the Sale of Consumer Goods and Associated Guarantees”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 297 y ss.
  • TWIGG-FLESNER, C., “The EC Consumer Sales Directiva: A Los Still To Do”, Canterbury Law Review, 2001, n.º 8, pp. 113 y ss.
  • TWIGG-FLESNER, C., “English Sales lay after the implementation of directive 99/44/EC on consumer sales. Back to the drawing board?”, EWS, 2003, n.º 11, pp. 12 y ss.
  • TWIGG-FLESNER, C., Consumer Product Guarantees, Hants, Ashgate, 2003. VAQUER ALOY, A., “Incumplimiento del contrato y remedios”, en S. CÁMARA LAPUENTE (Coord), Derecho Privado Europeo, Madrid, Colex, 2003, pp. 525 y ss.
  • BRUUN NIELSEN, “Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees ans its influence on Danish law”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 189 y ss.
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    Schema Summary

    • Article Name: Implied Terms
    • Author: W.S.M. Knight
    • Description: Implied Terms in Contract Formation Certain terms may be implied into contracts by law, or by usage or custom. The Sale of [...]

    This entry was last updated: April 13, 2015


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