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Entries Categorized: Uncategorized (152)



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Bacon's Abridgment, 7th ed. (1832) Matthew Bacon, A new abridgement of the law 7th ed. by Sir Henry Gwillim and Charles Edward Dodd (London: J. and W.T. Clarke, 1832) KF 154 B32 1832 Contents of the Bacon's Abridgment, 7th ed. (1832) Abatement Accompt Accord and Satisfaction [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Legal research and Long Read.

Act of Attainder

An Act of Attainder (Conviction) was an Act of Parliament convicting a person of an offence and inflicting a punishment. This was not necessarily preceded by a trial, but if it was it was held before both Houses of Parliament and not before the Lords on the accusation of the Commons, as was [...]

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Adam Islip

Adam Isip had been involved in the publication of Year Books. He had, as King's Printer, a monopoly for the printing of statutes. In Old Printed Editions of the Year Books of the Reign of King Edward III Year 1342-1343 ; Islip (Date of Publication: 1619 ) Year 1343-1344 ; Islip [...]

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Addled Parliament

The Parliament summoned by James I in 1614 in the hope of raising money. The Commons demanded the abolition of impositions (duties raised by the sole authority of the King), a demand which failed to receive the support of the Lords, and also the restoration of the ejected clergy to their [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: British History and Parliament.

Administrative Regulations

In line with the recommendation in the Löfstedt Report, it is advisable to distinguish between regulations that impose specific duties on businesses (substantive regulations) and those that define administrative requirements or revoke/amend earlier regulations (administrative regulations). [...]

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All England Law Reports

The All England Reports, cited [year] All E.R., are published weekly in paperback form. The All England Reports is a commercial series and contains reports of many cases that are not included in the Law Reports . Decisions of English Superior Courts and courts of special jurisdiction are [...]

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In the Sixteenth Century Anglicanism is the name frequently applied to that form of Protestantism which stamped the state church in England in the sixteenth century and which is now represented by the Episcopal Church in the United States as well as by the established Church of England. The [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Featured, History, Long Read, and Religious.

Anglo-Norman Law

Criminal Law History Minor acts of violence, dishonesty or nuisance, were dealt with in seigniorial and borough courts by presentment of the jurors of courts baron and courts leet, and punished by fine or in some cases by pillory, tumbril or stocks. Grave acts were dealt with by the sheriff [...]

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Animal Law

Boar From the earliest times, owing to its great strength, speed, and ferocity when at bay, the boar has been one of the favourite beasts of the chase. Under the old forest laws of England it was one of the “beasts of the forest,” and, as such, under the Norman kings the unprivileged killing [...]

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History Annan, a royal, municipal and police burgh of Dumfriesshire, Scotland, on the Annan, nearly 2 m. from its mouth, 15 m. from Dumfries by the Glasgow & South-Western railway. It has a station also on the Caledonian railway company’s branch line from Kirtlebridge to Brayton [...]

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History While the main activity of anti-Semitism has manifested itself in Germany, Russia, Rumania, Austria-Hungary and France, its vibratory influences have been felt in other countries when conditions favourable to its extension have Great Britain, &c. presented themselves. In England [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Discrimination and Human rights.


Bard, a word of Celtic derivation (Gaelic baird, Cymric bardh, Irish bard) applied to the ancient Celtic poets, though the name is sometimes loosely used as synonymous with poet in general. So far as can be ascertained, the title bards, and some of the privileges peculiar to that class of [...]

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Although the origin of this title has been the subject of learned speculation, it is not known for certain why it was selected as that of a new Dignitie between Barons and Knights created by James I. The object of its institution was to raise money for the crown, as was also done by the sale [...]

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Blanch Holding

Blanch Holding History Blanch Holding or Blanch Fee (from Fr. blanc, white), an ancient tenure in Scottish land law, the duty payable being in silver or white money in contradistinction to gold. The phrase was afterwards applied to any holding of which the quit-rent was merely nominal, such [...]

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Boarding-Out System

History Boarding-Out System, in the English poor law, the boarding-out of orphan or deserted children with suitable foster-parents. The practice was first authorized in 1868, though for many years previously it had been carried out by some boards of guardians on their own initiative. [...]

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Body-Snatching History Body-Snatching, the secret disinterring of dead bodies in churchyards in order to sell them for the purpose of dissection. Those who practised body-snatching were frequently called resurrectionists or resurrection-men. Previous to the passing of the Anatomy Act 1832 [...]

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Branches of Law

Branches of Scots Law The principal division in Scots Laws is that between public law, where the state in some manifestation is involved, and private law, where only private persons are involved. The Law of Persons Parent and Child Husband and Wife Guardian and Ward Other Persons in [...]

Categories: B, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: BR and Short Read.

British North America

Elections in British North America: 1758–1866 In the colonies that would later form Canada, the vote was a privilege reserved for a limited segment of the population – mainly affluent men. Eligibility was based on property ownership: to be eligible, an individual had to own property or [...]

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In the Sixteenth Century In Scotland Scotland, like every other European country in the early part of the sixteenth century, had been a place of protest against moral and financial abuses in the Catholic Church, but the beginnings of ecclesiastical rebellion are to be traced rather to [...]

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History: Political Unrest and First Elections Lord Durham was given the task of identifying the causes of political unrest in the colonies of British North America and proposing solutions. His first recommendation was to give each colony responsible government – an idea London did not accept [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: British History and Colonial.


Cardiganshire (Ceredigion, Sîr Aberteifi), a county of South Wales, bounded N. by Merioneth, E. by Montgomery, Radnor and Brecon, S. by Carmarthen and Pembroke, and W. by Cardigan Bay of the Irish Sea. It has an area of 688 sq. m., so that it ranks fifth in size of the Welsh countries. The [...]

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Carlisle, a city, municipal and parliamentary borough, and the county town of Cumberland, England, 299 m. N.N.W. of London, and 8 m. S. of the Scottish border. (...). It lies on the south bank of the river Eden, a little below the point where it debouches upon the Solway Plain, 8 m. above [...]

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Roman Catholics History Roman Catholicism in England has shown a tendency to advance, especially among the upper and upper-middle classes. The published lists of “converts” are, however, no safe index to actual progress; for no equivalent statistics are available for “leakage” in the opposite [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Canon Law and Ecclesiastical Law.


History Champion (Fr. champion, Late Lat. campio from campus, a field or open space, i.e. one “who takes the field” or fights; cf. Ger. Kampf, battle, and Kämpfer, fighter), in the judicial combats of the middle ages the substitute for a party to the suit disabled from bearing arms or [...]

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History The chancellor in England In England the office of chancellor dates back to the reign of Edward the Confessor, the first English king to use the Norman practice of sealing instead of signing documents; and from the Norman Conquest onwards the succession of chancellors is [...]

Categories: C, Civil Law, Commercial Law, Criminal law, Legislation, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: CH, Featured, Long Read, and Parliament.


History Chancery, in English law, the court of the lord chancellor of England, consolidated in 1873 along with the other superior courts in the Supreme Court of Judicature. Its origin is noticed under the head of Chancellor. It has been customary to say that the court of chancery consists [...]

Categories: C, Civil Law, Commercial Law, Legislation, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: CH and Long Read.

Channel Islands

Group of islands off the northwest coast of France, which became attached -in accordance to Bamber Gascoigne´ Encyclopedia of Britain about the entry Channel Islands- to the British crown at the time of the Conquest as part of the dukedom of Normandy. They have remained linked with Britain [...]

Categories: C, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: CH.

Channel Islands

Channel Islands Introduction Channel Islands (French Îles Normandes), a group of islands in the English Channel, belonging (except the Îles Chausey) to Great Britain. (For map, see England, Section VI.) They lie between 48° 50′ and 49° 45′ N., and 1° 50′ and 2° 45′ W., along the French coast [...]

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Clearing House Automated Payment System (CHAPS) The Clearing House Automated Payment System (CHAPS) is a sterling payments scheme that processes and settles both systemically important and time-dependent payments. CHAPS continues to be one of the largest RTGS systems in the world, [...]

Categories: C, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: CH.


Citation Of British Cases Generally speaking, the form of citation for British cases is the same as that for Canadian cases. You should follow the rules set down in Rule 4.15 of the McGill Guide (4th ed.) for citing British cases, keeping the following points in mind: When giving the [...]

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Colonial Policy

Resources Furher Reading A very brief survey: J. S. Bassett, A Short History of the United States (1914), ch. viii, ix. The most readable and reliable detailed account of mercantilism as applied by the British to their colonies is to be found in the volumes of G. L. Beer, The Origin of the [...]

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Consumer Protection

Definition of Consumer Protection In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Consumer Protection : The protection, especially by legal means, of consumers (those who contract otherwise than in the course of a business to obtain goods or services from those who [...]

Categories: Business Law, C, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: CO, Consumer Law, Consumers, Cyber Law, and Internet Law.


Cornwall, the south-westernmost county of England, bounded N. and N.W. by the Atlantic Ocean, E. by Devonshire, and S. and S.W. by the English Channel. Historical Legal Issues The tin of Cornwall has been known and worked from a period anterior to certain history. There is no direct [...]

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Corpse (Lat. corpus, the body), a dead human body. By the common law of England a corpse is not the subject of property nor capable of holding property. It is not therefore larceny to steal a corpse, but any removal of the coffin or grave-cloths is otherwise, such remaining the property of [...]

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Court Baron

Court Baron, an English manorial court dating from the middle ages and still in existence. It was laid down by Coke that a manor had two courts, “the first by the common law, and is called a court baron,” the freeholders (“barons”) being its suitors; the other a customary court for the [...]

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Covin, from the Fr. covine, or couvine, from Lat. convenire, to come together), an association of persons, so used in the Statute of Labourers of 1360, which, inter alia, declared void “all alliances and covins of masons and carpenters.” The more common use of the term in English law was for [...]

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Cricket is defined in the New English Dictionary as “an open-air game played with bats, ball and wickets by two sides of eleven players each; the batsman defends his wicket against the ball which is bowled by a player of the opposing side, the other players of this side being stationed about [...]

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Crimp, (possibly connected with “crimp,” to draw together, or fold in parallel lines, in the sense of “confine”; the primary meaning, however, seems to be that of “agent,” and the word may be a distinct one, of which the origin is lost), an agent for the supplying of soldiers and sailors, by [...]

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Currie v Misa

Currie v Misa in Contract Law Consideration, in the formation of a contract or agreement, refers to the need for there to be mutual benefits for the parties to a contract. The traditional definition of consideration in Currie v Misa (1875) states 'a valuable consideration, in the sense of the [...]

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De Donis Conditionalibus

De Donis Conditionalibus, a chapter of the statute of Westminster the Second (1285) which originated the law of entail. Strictly speaking, a form of entail was known before the Norman feudal law had been domesticated in England. The common form was a grant “to the feoffee and the heirs of [...]

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History Dean (Lat. decanus, derived from the Gr. δέκα, ten), the style of a certain functionary, primarily ecclesiastical. Whether the term was first used among the secular clergy to signify the priest who had a charge of inspection and superintendence over two parishes, or among the regular [...]

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History Defeasance, or Defeazance (Fr. défaire, to undo), in law, an instrument which defeats the force or operation of some other deed or estate; as distinguished from condition, that which in the same deed is called a condition is a defeasance in another deed. A defeasance should recite [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Deeds and Short Read.


History Derelict (from Latin derelinquere, to forsake), in law, property thrown away or abandoned by the owner in such a manner as to indicate that he intends to make no further claim to it. The word is used more particularly with respect to property abandoned at sea (see Wreck), but it is [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Land law and Short Read.

Dictionary of English Law

Jowitt's Dictionary of English Law By the late the Right Honourable the Earl Jowitt and Clifford Walsh, ll.m., Solicitor of the Supreme Court. First edition: 1959 (2 Vols.) Second edition, by John Burke, Barrister, Sometime Editor of Current Law. [London: Sweet & Maxwell Ltd. [...]

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Edmund Burke Work

In 1756 he made his first mark by a satire upon Bolingbroke entitled A Vindication of Natural Society. It purported to be a posthumous work from the pen of Bolingbroke, and to present a view of the miseries and evils arising to mankind from every species of artificial society. The imitation [...]

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Edward Ii

Old Printed Editions of the Year Books During the years of the kingdom under Edward II (Years 1307-1326), the Year Books had the name Maynard and the Date of Publication were the year 1678 Edward II Records For information about this topic, please read the entry, in this legal [...]

Categories: E, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: ED, Edward II, Full Text Records, Legal history, Legislative Records, Long Read, Manorial Courts, Medieval Case Law, Medieval Courts, Medieval Law, Medieval Legal Documents, Medieval Legal Materials, Medieval Statutes, Medieval Statutory Law, Non Royal Courts, Parliamentary Records, Seignorial Courts, Statutes Collections, Statutory Law, and Year Books.

Edward Iii

Edward III (1312—1377, 1327—1377) is widely regarded as a gifted administrator, military leader, and legislator. His best known legislative acts include the Statute of Laborers (1351) and the Treason Act (1351). He is also credited with the establishment of effective local law enforcement by [...]

Categories: E, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: Central Common Courts, ED, Edward III, Full Text Charters, Full Text Proclamations, Full Text Records, Law Reports, Legal history, Legislative Records, Long Read, Medieval Administrative Law, Medieval Case Law, Medieval Courts, Medieval Law, Medieval Legal Documents, Medieval Legal Materials, Medieval Statutory Law, Monarchy, Parliamentary Records, Records of State, Royal Charters, Royal Courts, Royal Proclamations, Statutory Law, Writs, and Year Books.

Ejusdem Generis

Ejusdem Generis and the Golden Rule in the context of Statutory Interpretation The golden rule is a modification of the literal rule and is used when the literal interpretation of words would lead to a ‘manifest absurdity’ The ejusdem generis rule can be applied where general words [...]

Categories: E, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: EJ and Legal Practice Terms.

Equality Act 2010

The Equality Act 2010 and disability From the book Cornerstone on Anti-Social Behaviour: the new law (Bloomsbury Professional), by Cornerstone Chambers: The Equality Act 2010 ('EA 2010') came into force on 1 October 2010 in England, Wales and Scotland, consolidating and in some respects [...]

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European Union

Resources Further Reading BEALE, H./HOWELLS, G., “EC Harmonisation of Consumer Sales Law – A missed opportunity?”, Journal of Contract Law, 1997, n.º 12, pp. 21 y ss. BIRD, T. C., “Directive 99/44/EC on Certain Aspects of the Sale of Consumer Goods and Associated Guarantees: Its [...]

Categories: E, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: EU and European Law.

Faster Payments

Faster Payments is a banking service that allows you to send and receive low-value sterling payments in almost real time. Fast Payments all year round. Faster Payments is a payment service which allows most customers of UK banks to be able to make and receive sterling payments within the [...]

Categories: Commercial Law, F, International Law, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: Consumer Law, Cyber Law, FA, Internet, and Long Read.

Forensic Pathology

Forensic pathology is a sub-specialty of histopathology, and is concerned with the application of pathological principles to the investigation of the medico-legal aspects of death. The forensic investigation of death is a multi-disciplinary activity, involving the collaboration between [...]

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Game Laws

From the Encyclopedia Britannica (1911): Game Laws: This title in English law is applied to the statutes which regulate the right to pursue and take or kill certain kinds of wild animals (see above). The existence of these statutes is due to the rules of the common law as to the nature [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Long Read and Property.

George III

George III and the Electoral System in the Colonias While allowing its colonies to have legislative assemblies, London was also deciding, through governors and their councillors, who would have the right to vote. The legislative assemblies of the Maritime colonies gained partial control in [...]

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Health and Safety Regulations

List of Health and Safety Regulations by date Miscellaneous Mines (General) Order 1956 (S.I. 1956/1778)  ( 1956 ) Stratified Ironstone, Shale and Fireclay Mines (Explosives) Regulations 1956 (S.I. 1956/1943)  ( 1956 ) Coal and Other Mines (Fire and Rescue) Order 1956 (S.I. [...]

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Herefordshire, an inland county of England on the south Welsh border, bounded N. by Shropshire, E. by Worcestershire, S. by Monmouthshire and Gloucestershire, and W. by Radnorshire and Brecknockshire. The area is 839.6 sq. m. The county is almost wholly drained by the Wye and its [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Counties and Geography.

House of Keys

The origin of the name Keys or House of Keys, the lower branch of the legislature, the court of Tynwald, of the Isle of Man, has been much discussed, but it is generally accepted that it is a particular application of the word “key” by English- and not Manx-speaking 768 people. According to [...]

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Immigration and Asylum Law Milestone Cases

A v Secretary of State for the Home Department (BAILII: [2002] EWCA Civ 1502 ) [2003] 2 WLR 564, [2003] 1 All ER 816, [2004] QB 335  A v Secretary of State for the Home Department (BAILII: [2003] EWCA Civ 175 ) [2003] All ER (D) 151  Abdi v Secretary of State for the [...]

Categories: I, International Law, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: Asylum, IM, Immigration Law, and Long Read.

Isle of Man

The island was much visited -in accordance to Bamber Gascoigne´ Encyclopedia of Britain about “Isle of Man”- from the 6C by Celtic missionaries from Ireland; it was part of the territory of the Viking rulers of Dublin (10–13C); then for nearly a century it was governed from Scotland; and [...]

Categories: I, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: IS.


Jacobites Introduction Jacobites, (from Lat. Jacobus, James), the name given after the revolution of 1688 to the adherents, first of the exiled English king James II., then of his descendants, and after the extinction of the latter in 1807, of the descendants of Charles I., i.e. of the exiled [...]

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Leave of Absence

The formal granting of leave of absence to a Member of Parliament is a practice which has largely fallen into disuse. The attendance of members is not enforced in either House. Formerly members of the House of Commons who absented themselves without permission were directed to be punished, [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Parliament.

Legal Terms

Legal Terms in Scotland: Action Acts of Adjournal Acts of Sederunt Adjudication Admonition Aliment Allenarly Allodial Art and Part Assoilzie Avizandum Books of Council and Sessions Candlemas Caution Confirmation Curator Dead´s Part Debate Decree Defender Delict Diligence [...]

Categories: L, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: LE and Short Read.

Legislation Citation

Introduction to Citation of United Kingdom legislation Pre-1963 statutes (a) Short title: Give the title of the Act, retaining the original spelling. (b) Year: Following the short title, give the calendar year in which the legislation was enacted. (c) Jurisdiction: Use the [...]

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Note: the meaning is different from Legitimation. Legitim, or Bairn’s Part, in Scots law, the legal share of the movable property of a father due on his death to his children. If a father dies leaving a widow and children, the movable property is divided into three equal parts; one-third [...]

Categories: Civil Law, Commercial Law, Criminal law, L, Legislation, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: LE, Property, and Scotland.


Leicestershire, a midland county of England, bounded N. by Nottinghamshire, E. by Lincolnshire and Rutland, S.E. by Northamptonshire, S.W. by Warwickshire, and N.W. by Derbyshire, also touching Staffordshire on the W. The area is 823.6 sq. m. The surface of the county is an undulating [...]

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In England a Lenten fast was first ordered to be observed by Earconberht, king of Kent (640-664). In the middle ages, meat, eggs and milk were forbidden in Lent not only by ecclesiastical but by statute law; and this rule was enforced until the reign of william III. The chief Lenten food [...]

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Leveson Report

By Francis Bennion: On December (2012), The Times published a letter from me suggesting that the best way to implement the Leveson Report, while maintaining press freedom, was for the media to think of themselves as a profession and, like many professional bodies, get themselves a royal [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: Charities and Telecommunications.

List of Common Cases Names

Navigation: 1 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U W Y Z In the United Kingdom   Common Name Citation 1 1990 World Cup Clips Case [1992] Ch 141 A Abba Case [1977] FSR 62 Addinell’s Case LR 1 Eq 225 Addinells Case LR 1 Eq 225 Advocaat Case [1979] AC 731 Alconbury Case [...]

Categories: L, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: LI.

Long Parliament

History Convocation of the Long Parliament, 1640 In his Scotch policy Charles overreached himself. With the zealous coöperation of Archbishop Laud, imprudently attempted to strengthen the episcopacy (system of bishops) in the northern kingdom, and likewise to introduce an un-Calvinistic [...]

Categories: su1 and Uncategorized. Tags: History and Parliament.

Martial Law

History “Martial law” is an unfortunate term and in a sense a misnomer. It describes a suspension of ordinary law, rendered necessary by circumstances of war or rebellion. The confusion arose from the fact that the marshal’s court administered military law before the introduction of articles [...]

Categories: International Law, M, su1, and Uncategorized. Tags: Featured, International Law, Long Read, MA, Military Law, and Most Popular.