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Law and Administration under Henry II

Law and Administration under Henry II In our last lecture we discussed Henry II in his role as a French prince trying to build and maintain a great empire out of the various territories that his parents and his wife had given him. This is probably how contemporaries, and likely Henry himself, viewed his efforts and career. Yet Henry’s historical reputation in England derives mainly from another aspect of his activity. Henry is the father of the common law of England. What is the common law? The older meaning of the word is the simpler. It means that there is, or should be, one law, royal law, for all English people. The phrase common law has a second meaning as well. It means the indigenous system of principles, procedures and precedents that evolved in England and which is the basis for the legal systems of Britain, the USA, most of Canada, and other English-speaking countries. Common law is distinct from Roman or civil law which survives today, in a form modified in medieval and modern times, in much of continental Europe, in Louisiana, and Quebec. Henry’s legal initiatives lie at the basis of the common law system. His own goal […]

Short Title

Short Title Statute Names According to Renata E.B. Strause, Allyson R. Bennett, Caitlin B. Tully, M. Douglass Bellis, and Eugene R. Fidell, in “How Federal Statutes Are Named” (Law Library Journal Vol. 105:1 [2013-1], “in 1847, long before any (United States) federal law had one, a drafter of the Markets and Fairs Clauses Act 1847 gave that act that official short title. Lord Brougham’s Act (also known as the Interpretation Act 1850), the long title of which was “An Act for shortening the Language used in Acts of Parliament,” may also have paved the way. Among other things, it eliminated the requirement that British acts be cited by their long titles; citation by session and chapter number sufficed. (1) Both the first enacted short title and Lord Brougham’s Act were passed before the Office of the Parliamentary Counsel was created in 1869. The first holder of that office, Lord Henry Thring, had been drafting legislation since at least 1860 and memorialized his advice for legislative drafters in a manual titled Practical Legislation. (2) He recommended that every act include a short title, ending with the year of enactment. (3) Parliament (or at least the Office of the Parliamentary Counsel) apparently […]

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Tax Law

Tax Law in the United Kingdom Some Popular Taxation Meanings Sales Tax Superannuation (in Australia and other countries) Progressive Tax Alternative Minimum Tax Customs Corporate Tax Internal Revenue Code (including section 1031) Tax exemption Carbon Tax Payroll Tax Defined Benefit Pension Plan Tax Evasion 529 Plan Inheritance Tax C Corporation Tax Deducted at Source Rate Schedule (Federal Income Tax) Tax Rate Capital Gain Offshore Bank Regressive Tax Indirect Tax Employer Identification Number Taxation Meaning Income Tax Law Tax Law Tax Code Income Tax Tax Law Careers Tax Law Jobs Tax Laws in India Taxation Taxation without representation Types of Taxation History of Taxation Types of Taxes Fiscal Policy Taxation Principles Taxation Definition Taxation in the European Union Taxation Office Taxation and Customs Union Taxation (in different countries) Value Added Tax Fiscal Year Flexible Spending Account Sales tax Depreciation Income tax Tax Dividend VAT Identification Number Subsidy Black Market Tariff Income Tax Capital Gains Tax Transfer Pricing Income Tax in India Withholding Tax Tax Haven Excise Church Tax Corporate Tax Public Finance Property Tax Deferred Tax Gross Income Government Spending Tax Forms Superannuation (in Australia and other countries) Progressive Tax Alternative Minimum Tax Customs Corporate Tax Tax Code Tax exemption Carbon […]

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Brueria

Brueria Brueria Definition In old English law. A heath ground; ground where heath grows. Also Called Bruarium, Bruera or Bruerum. Notes and References This definition of Brueria is based on The Cyclopedic Law Dictionary .

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Witness

Witness

Introduction to Witness

Witness, in law, in the United Kingdom and the United States, a term used to designate either a person who testifies or gives evidence in a judicial or quasi-judicial proceeding or someone who attests to or is present at the execution of a legal instru…

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Witenagemot

Witenagemot

Introduction to Witenagemot

Witenagemot (Old English, "meeting of the wise men"), assembly of councillors in Anglo-Saxon England that met to advise the king of judicial and administrative matters. Originally a gathering of all the freemen of a tribe, it eventual…

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William Murray

Murray William 1st Earl of Mansfield

Introduction to William Murray

William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield (1705-1793), British jurist. Murray was known as a fair and scrupulous representative of the law. He was born in Scone, Scotland, and went to England at the age of 14. Educated a…

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William Blackstone

William Blackstone

Introduction to William Blackstone

Sir William Blackstone (1723-1780), British jurist and legal scholar, whose work Commentaries on the Laws of England was used for more than a century as the foundation of all legal education in Great Britain and the United States….

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Tudors

British Political and Social Thought: Division of Power Under the Tudors

Introduction to Tudors

In the 16th century the ruling Tudor monarchy increased the level of cooperation among royalty, local aristocrats, and wealthy merchants. Although the Tudors maintained their belief in the…

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Treason

Treason in English Law

Introduction to Treason

Two grades of treason existed in early English law: high treason, which was directed against the Crown, and petty treason, which consisted of a crime against a subject, such as a wife killing her husband, or a servant murdering his maste…

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