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Relief on Loan in United Kingdom

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Relief on Loan and the 1834 Report

In this issue about relief on loan, the book “English Poor Law Policy” [1] reads as follows: The Commissioners recommended “that under regulations to be framed … parishes be empowered to treat any relief afforded to the able-bodied, or to their families, and any expenditure in the workhouses, or otherwise incurred on their account, as a loan,” to be legally recoverable. It is to be noted that this proposal is expressly limited to the “able-bodied or to their families.” No definition, as usual, is given of the term able-bodied.

Relief on Loan, the Act of 1834 and its Amendments

In this issue about relief on loan, the book “English Poor Law Policy” [1] reads as follows: It was enacted that any relief that the Central Authority might declare or direct to be by way of loan should be legally recoverable by the local authority, even by attachment of wages.

Five years later the local authority was given power to attach Army and Navy pensions, in repayment of the cost of relief, even without such relief having been declared to be on loan.

Relief on Loan and the Poor Law Board

In this issue about relief on loan, the book “English Poor Law Policy” [1] reads as follows: We may note that the Central Authority did not advise making use of the statutory power to grant relief in the form of a loan, as a means of discouraging applicants, but regarded it solely as a way of saving the rates. Such relief was to be granted with due consideration and the bona fide intention of recovering. Relief could not be given on loan if it would be contrary to Order to grant it not on loan. In fact, what might not lawfully be given, was not to be lent. Whatever was granted on loan should always be strictly recovered in due time. “The power of lending is only to be exercised where the guardians think fit to do something less than absolutely give the relief applied for in cases where the application is lawful.” As examples of occasions suitable for relief on loan, the Central Authority adduced that of a mentally defective person having a regular and sufficient income, but yet occasionally destitute from incapacity to manage his expenditure. Other cases are those of wives or children found destitute, when the relief may be made on loan to the husbands or parents. A further instance is supplied by relief applied for by the mother of an illegitimate child who is entitled to periodical payments from the putative father. The putative father may be asked to make his payments in such a way as to facilitate the recovery of the loan from the mother. We find no revival of the idea mooted in 1840 of granting medical relief on loan.

Relief on Loan and the Local Government Board

In this issue about relief on loan, the book “English Poor Law Policy” [1] reads as follows: We note, without any explicit change of policy, a growing tendency to extend the sphere of relief on loan. It is in Mr. Corbett’s Report of 1871 that we find a revival of the suggestion thrown out in 1840 that medical relief, in particular, might be given on loan; and even that it should be “generally granted by way of loan,” without regard, it would seem, to the probability of its being recovered. This opinion of the inspectorate, though (as we gather) constantly pressed on boards of guardians, did not, in 1877, receive the explicit endorsement of the Central Authority. An influential proposal to make all relief (and especially all medical relief) recoverable as if given on loan was definitely negatived. “The policy of the existing law,” it was declared, “is that the question whether or not relief shall be granted on loan, or, in other words, whether it shall be recoverable at a future time, is to be determined by a consideration of the actual circumstances existing at the time the relief is granted, and it would be at variance with that policy if every recipient of relief were to feel that after he again succeeded in obtaining employment any savings he might be able to put by would be liable for the repayment of the relief which he might have received.” This seems to be the latest declaration of policy. There is a particular difficulty in the way of granting medical relief on loan when the medical officer is paid by salary, which does not arise when he is paid by fee-namely, that of fixing the amount to be recovered. The Central Authority suggested that the difficulty might perhaps be met by paying him partly by fee and partly by salary, but it expressed no decided views as to either the practicability or the expediency of such a course.

Moreover, the Central Authority held that “the relieving officer has no power to compel any applicant to accept relief on loan. If, therefore, in a case of sudden or urgent necessity a person refuses to accept the offer of medical relief upon the condition that the cost thereof be repaid, the Board consider that the relieving officer would not be exempt from all further responsibility in the case, unless he had reason to believe that the applicant was in a position to procure the requisite medical aid without assistance from the poor rate.” When it was laid down in 1876 that no relief to a lunatic could be recovered unless and until declared to be on loan, it was remarked that “it will be incumbent upon the guardians … to examine each case … to consider all its circumstances, and not to declare the relief to be given on loan, until they are satisfied that the circumstances will justify such a declaration.” Nor was it permissible to fix the value of medical relief at an arbitrary sum. “There are great practical difficulties,” concludes the Central Authority in 1886, “in the way of determining the value of such relief,” for the purpose of recovering it when made on loan.

Thus, it can perhaps not fairly be said that the inspectors’ policy of using the power of granting relief on loan as a means of deterring applicants from applying for or accepting it, has received formal endorsement by the Central Authority. On the other hand, unions which have adopted the policy of systematically granting all medical relief on loan, irrespective of the applicant’s circumstances, have-so far as we can discover-not been reproved or criticised by the Central Authority for what is, apparently, a breach of its instructions. On a complaint being made of this practice, the Bradfield Board of Guardians contended that it was justified; and their contention was apparently upheld. And the practice of the Bristol Board of Guardians of granting all outdoor relief on loan, irrespective of the applicant’s circumstances, or even of his actual acceptance of it as a loan, has not been stopped. Moreover, by the Feeding of School Children Order, the Central Authority (in apparent contradiction of its decision in 1877) directed such relief to be given on loan irrespective of the father’s circumstances.

Resources

Notes and References

  1. Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb, “English Poor Law Policy” (1913), Longmans, Green and Co., London, New York, Bombay and Calcuta.

See Also

Resources

Notes and References

  1. Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb, “English Poor Law Policy” (1913), Longmans, Green and Co., London, New York, Bombay and Calcuta.

See Also

Relief on Loan and the Local Government Board

In this issue about relief on loan, the book “English Poor Law Policy” [1] reads as follows: We note, without any explicit change of policy, a growing tendency to extend the sphere of relief on loan. It is in Mr. Corbett’s Report of 1871 that we find a revival of the suggestion thrown out in 1840 that medical relief, in particular, might be given on loan; and even that it should be “generally granted by way of loan,” without regard, it would seem, to the probability of its being recovered. This opinion of the inspectorate, though (as we gather) constantly pressed on boards of guardians, did not, in 1877, receive the explicit endorsement of the Central Authority. An influential proposal to make all relief (and especially all medical relief) recoverable as if given on loan was definitely negatived. “The policy of the existing law,” it was declared, “is that the question whether or not relief shall be granted on loan, or, in other words, whether it shall be recoverable at a future time, is to be determined by a consideration of the actual circumstances existing at the time the relief is granted, and it would be at variance with that policy if every recipient of relief were to feel that after he again succeeded in obtaining employment any savings he might be able to put by would be liable for the repayment of the relief which he might have received.” This seems to be the latest declaration of policy. There is a particular difficulty in the way of granting medical relief on loan when the medical officer is paid by salary, which does not arise when he is paid by fee-namely, that of fixing the amount to be recovered. The Central Authority suggested that the difficulty might perhaps be met by paying him partly by fee and partly by salary, but it expressed no decided views as to either the practicability or the expediency of such a course.

Moreover, the Central Authority held that “the relieving officer has no power to compel any applicant to accept relief on loan. If, therefore, in a case of sudden or urgent necessity a person refuses to accept the offer of medical relief upon the condition that the cost thereof be repaid, the Board consider that the relieving officer would not be exempt from all further responsibility in the case, unless he had reason to believe that the applicant was in a position to procure the requisite medical aid without assistance from the poor rate.” When it was laid down in 1876 that no relief to a lunatic could be recovered unless and until declared to be on loan, it was remarked that “it will be incumbent upon the guardians … to examine each case … to consider all its circumstances, and not to declare the relief to be given on loan, until they are satisfied that the circumstances will justify such a declaration.” Nor was it permissible to fix the value of medical relief at an arbitrary sum. “There are great practical difficulties,” concludes the Central Authority in 1886, “in the way of determining the value of such relief,” for the purpose of recovering it when made on loan.

Thus, it can perhaps not fairly be said that the inspectors’ policy of using the power of granting relief on loan as a means of deterring applicants from applying for or accepting it, has received formal endorsement by the Central Authority. On the other hand, unions which have adopted the policy of systematically granting all medical relief on loan, irrespective of the applicant’s circumstances, have-so far as we can discover-not been reproved or criticised by the Central Authority for what is, apparently, a breach of its instructions. On a complaint being made of this practice, the Bradfield Board of Guardians contended that it was justified; and their contention was apparently upheld. And the practice of the Bristol Board of Guardians of granting all outdoor relief on loan, irrespective of the applicant’s circumstances, or even of his actual acceptance of it as a loan, has not been stopped. Moreover, by the Feeding of School Children Order, the Central Authority (in apparent contradiction of its decision in 1877) directed such relief to be given on loan irrespective of the father’s circumstances.

Resources

Notes and References

  1. Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb, “English Poor Law Policy” (1913), Longmans, Green and Co., London, New York, Bombay and Calcuta.

See Also

Resources

Notes and References

  1. Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb, “English Poor Law Policy” (1913), Longmans, Green and Co., London, New York, Bombay and Calcuta.

See Also

Relief on Loan and the Poor Law Board

In this issue about relief on loan, the book “English Poor Law Policy” [1] reads as follows: We may note that the Central Authority did not advise making use of the statutory power to grant relief in the form of a loan, as a means of discouraging applicants, but regarded it solely as a way of saving the rates. Such relief was to be granted with due consideration and the bona fide intention of recovering. Relief could not be given on loan if it would be contrary to Order to grant it not on loan. In fact, what might not lawfully be given, was not to be lent. Whatever was granted on loan should always be strictly recovered in due time. “The power of lending is only to be exercised where the guardians think fit to do something less than absolutely give the relief applied for in cases where the application is lawful.” As examples of occasions suitable for relief on loan, the Central Authority adduced that of a mentally defective person having a regular and sufficient income, but yet occasionally destitute from incapacity to manage his expenditure. Other cases are those of wives or children found destitute, when the relief may be made on loan to the husbands or parents. A further instance is supplied by relief applied for by the mother of an illegitimate child who is entitled to periodical payments from the putative father. The putative father may be asked to make his payments in such a way as to facilitate the recovery of the loan from the mother. We find no revival of the idea mooted in 1840 of granting medical relief on loan.

Relief on Loan and the Local Government Board

In this issue about relief on loan, the book “English Poor Law Policy” [1] reads as follows: We note, without any explicit change of policy, a growing tendency to extend the sphere of relief on loan. It is in Mr. Corbett’s Report of 1871 that we find a revival of the suggestion thrown out in 1840 that medical relief, in particular, might be given on loan; and even that it should be “generally granted by way of loan,” without regard, it would seem, to the probability of its being recovered. This opinion of the inspectorate, though (as we gather) constantly pressed on boards of guardians, did not, in 1877, receive the explicit endorsement of the Central Authority. An influential proposal to make all relief (and especially all medical relief) recoverable as if given on loan was definitely negatived. “The policy of the existing law,” it was declared, “is that the question whether or not relief shall be granted on loan, or, in other words, whether it shall be recoverable at a future time, is to be determined by a consideration of the actual circumstances existing at the time the relief is granted, and it would be at variance with that policy if every recipient of relief were to feel that after he again succeeded in obtaining employment any savings he might be able to put by would be liable for the repayment of the relief which he might have received.” This seems to be the latest declaration of policy. There is a particular difficulty in the way of granting medical relief on loan when the medical officer is paid by salary, which does not arise when he is paid by fee-namely, that of fixing the amount to be recovered. The Central Authority suggested that the difficulty might perhaps be met by paying him partly by fee and partly by salary, but it expressed no decided views as to either the practicability or the expediency of such a course.

Moreover, the Central Authority held that “the relieving officer has no power to compel any applicant to accept relief on loan. If, therefore, in a case of sudden or urgent necessity a person refuses to accept the offer of medical relief upon the condition that the cost thereof be repaid, the Board consider that the relieving officer would not be exempt from all further responsibility in the case, unless he had reason to believe that the applicant was in a position to procure the requisite medical aid without assistance from the poor rate.” When it was laid down in 1876 that no relief to a lunatic could be recovered unless and until declared to be on loan, it was remarked that “it will be incumbent upon the guardians … to examine each case … to consider all its circumstances, and not to declare the relief to be given on loan, until they are satisfied that the circumstances will justify such a declaration.” Nor was it permissible to fix the value of medical relief at an arbitrary sum. “There are great practical difficulties,” concludes the Central Authority in 1886, “in the way of determining the value of such relief,” for the purpose of recovering it when made on loan.

Thus, it can perhaps not fairly be said that the inspectors’ policy of using the power of granting relief on loan as a means of deterring applicants from applying for or accepting it, has received formal endorsement by the Central Authority. On the other hand, unions which have adopted the policy of systematically granting all medical relief on loan, irrespective of the applicant’s circumstances, have-so far as we can discover-not been reproved or criticised by the Central Authority for what is, apparently, a breach of its instructions. On a complaint being made of this practice, the Bradfield Board of Guardians contended that it was justified; and their contention was apparently upheld. And the practice of the Bristol Board of Guardians of granting all outdoor relief on loan, irrespective of the applicant’s circumstances, or even of his actual acceptance of it as a loan, has not been stopped. Moreover, by the Feeding of School Children Order, the Central Authority (in apparent contradiction of its decision in 1877) directed such relief to be given on loan irrespective of the father’s circumstances.

Resources

Notes and References

  1. Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb, “English Poor Law Policy” (1913), Longmans, Green and Co., London, New York, Bombay and Calcuta.

See Also

Resources

Notes and References

  1. Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb, “English Poor Law Policy” (1913), Longmans, Green and Co., London, New York, Bombay and Calcuta.

See Also

Relief on Loan and the Local Government Board

In this issue about relief on loan, the book “English Poor Law Policy” [1] reads as follows: We note, without any explicit change of policy, a growing tendency to extend the sphere of relief on loan. It is in Mr. Corbett’s Report of 1871 that we find a revival of the suggestion thrown out in 1840 that medical relief, in particular, might be given on loan; and even that it should be “generally granted by way of loan,” without regard, it would seem, to the probability of its being recovered. This opinion of the inspectorate, though (as we gather) constantly pressed on boards of guardians, did not, in 1877, receive the explicit endorsement of the Central Authority. An influential proposal to make all relief (and especially all medical relief) recoverable as if given on loan was definitely negatived. “The policy of the existing law,” it was declared, “is that the question whether or not relief shall be granted on loan, or, in other words, whether it shall be recoverable at a future time, is to be determined by a consideration of the actual circumstances existing at the time the relief is granted, and it would be at variance with that policy if every recipient of relief were to feel that after he again succeeded in obtaining employment any savings he might be able to put by would be liable for the repayment of the relief which he might have received.” This seems to be the latest declaration of policy. There is a particular difficulty in the way of granting medical relief on loan when the medical officer is paid by salary, which does not arise when he is paid by fee-namely, that of fixing the amount to be recovered. The Central Authority suggested that the difficulty might perhaps be met by paying him partly by fee and partly by salary, but it expressed no decided views as to either the practicability or the expediency of such a course.

Moreover, the Central Authority held that “the relieving officer has no power to compel any applicant to accept relief on loan. If, therefore, in a case of sudden or urgent necessity a person refuses to accept the offer of medical relief upon the condition that the cost thereof be repaid, the Board consider that the relieving officer would not be exempt from all further responsibility in the case, unless he had reason to believe that the applicant was in a position to procure the requisite medical aid without assistance from the poor rate.” When it was laid down in 1876 that no relief to a lunatic could be recovered unless and until declared to be on loan, it was remarked that “it will be incumbent upon the guardians … to examine each case … to consider all its circumstances, and not to declare the relief to be given on loan, until they are satisfied that the circumstances will justify such a declaration.” Nor was it permissible to fix the value of medical relief at an arbitrary sum. “There are great practical difficulties,” concludes the Central Authority in 1886, “in the way of determining the value of such relief,” for the purpose of recovering it when made on loan.

Thus, it can perhaps not fairly be said that the inspectors’ policy of using the power of granting relief on loan as a means of deterring applicants from applying for or accepting it, has received formal endorsement by the Central Authority. On the other hand, unions which have adopted the policy of systematically granting all medical relief on loan, irrespective of the applicant’s circumstances, have-so far as we can discover-not been reproved or criticised by the Central Authority for what is, apparently, a breach of its instructions. On a complaint being made of this practice, the Bradfield Board of Guardians contended that it was justified; and their contention was apparently upheld. And the practice of the Bristol Board of Guardians of granting all outdoor relief on loan, irrespective of the applicant’s circumstances, or even of his actual acceptance of it as a loan, has not been stopped. Moreover, by the Feeding of School Children Order, the Central Authority (in apparent contradiction of its decision in 1877) directed such relief to be given on loan irrespective of the father’s circumstances.

Resources

Notes and References

  1. Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb, “English Poor Law Policy” (1913), Longmans, Green and Co., London, New York, Bombay and Calcuta.

See Also

Resources

Notes and References

  1. Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb, “English Poor Law Policy” (1913), Longmans, Green and Co., London, New York, Bombay and Calcuta.

See Also



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  • Article Name: Relief on Loan
  • Author: Rhona Schuz
  • Description: Relief on Loan and the 1834 Report In this issue about relief on loan, the book English Poor Law Policy [1] reads as [...]

This entry was last updated: February 14, 2017

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